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Raghavendra Babu Y.P.,Manipal University India | Kanchan T.,Manipal University India | Attiku Y.,Manipal University India | Dixit P.N.,Mandya Institute of Medical science | Kotian M.S.,Manipal University India
Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine | Year: 2012

Identification of skeletal remains is vital in forensic investigations. The need for methods to estimate sex from cranial fragments becomes apparent when only a part of skull is brought for identification. The present research is an attempt to study the sexual dimorphism of the anteroposterior diameter, transverse diameter and area of foramen magnum in a population of costal Karnataka region using statistical considerations. Ninety adult dry skulls of known sex (50 male and 40 female) were included in the study. Morphometric analysis of foramen magnum was conducted using vernier calipers and the area of foramen magnum was calculated. The anteroposterior diameter, transverse diameter and area of foramen magnum are found to be significantly larger in males than females. Binary Logistic Regression (BLR) analysis was performed to derive models for estimation of sex from the different measurements of foramen magnum and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn for the predicted probabilities obtained from BLR analysis. The predictability of foramen magnum measurements in sexing of crania was 65.4% for transverse diameter and 86.5% for the anteroposterior diameter. For the area of foramen magnum that was calculated using the formula derived by Radinsky and Teixeria, the predicted probabilities were observed to be 81.6% and 82.2% respectively. When anteroposterior and transverse diameter were used together in BLR analysis the predictability of sex increased to 88%. However, considering the overlapping in the male and female values for the foramen magnum measurements it is suggested that its application in sex estimation should be restricted to cases where only a fragment of base of the skull is brought for examination. In such cases, the anteroposterior diameter and area of the foramen magnum can be employed as better tools for sexing the skulls than the transverse diameter of the foramen magnum. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved. Source

Sridhar P.V.,Mandya Institute of Medical science | Kamala C.S.,Adichunchangiri Institute of Medical science
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2014

Introduction: Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) is one of the preventable major public health problems in India. It has been always thought that goitre was only found in the Himalayan goitre belt. Recent surveys outside the conventional goitre belt have identified foci of iodine deficiency in other parts of India. Aim: 1) To assess the prevalence of goitre among school-going children in the age group of 6-15 years. 2) To find out the relationship of goitre prevalence with the salt intake and urinary iodine excretion. 3) To unfold the iodine nutritional status of the study population. Material and Methods: The study was conducted from January 2005 to July 2006 in school children of 6-15 years of age, attending the 55 schools of Bellur hobli in the southern part of India. The clinical examination of all the 1600 children of the selected schools was done to detect and grade goitre. Urine and salt samples were collected from sub-samples (n = 400) to estimate the urinary iodine excretion level and iodine content in the salt respectively.Results: The goitre prevalence in the study population was found to be 0.125%. Urinary iodine excretion (UIE) level of ≥ 100 mcg/l was found in 361 children (90.25%) and < 100 mcg/ l in 39 children (9.75%). Estimation of iodine content of the salt samples revealed that 363 (90.75%) consumed adequately iodised salt (> 15ppm) and 37 (9.25%) consumed inadequately iodised salt (< 15ppm). Conclusion: Bellur Hobli is not an endemic area for goitre and there is no biochemical iodine deficiency in this population due to effective implementation of Universal iodization programme (UIP). It is reasonable to conclude that by achieving the universal iodisation of salt, IDD can be successfully eliminated from the community. Source

Mysore V.,Venkat Charmalaya Center for Advanced Dermatology | Shashikumar B.M.,Mandya Institute of Medical science
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology | Year: 2016

Background: Targeted phototherapy is a new form of phototherapy which has many advantages and disadvantages over conventional phototherapy. This article reviews the different technologies and outlines recommendations based on current evidence. Methods: A literature search was performed on targeted phototherapy to collect data. Relevant literature published till March 2014 was obtained from PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. Keywords like 'targeted phototherapy', 'excimer laser', 'excimer lamp', 'Nonchromatic ultraviolet light', 'vitiligo', and 'psoriasis', were used for literature search. All systematic reviews, meta-analysis, national guidelines, randomized controlled trials (RCT), prospective open label studies and retrospective case series in English were reviewed. Results: Three hundred and forty studies were evaluated, 24 of which fulfilled the criteria for inclusion in the guidelines. Conclusions and Recommendations: All forms of targeted phototherapy are useful in vitiligo. Good responses were seen in localized involvement, resistant lesions and in children in whom their use is more accepted and convenient (Level of evidence 2+, Grade of recommendation B). Similarly it is useful in psoriasis, either alone or in combination with drugs, even in resistant forms such as palmoplantar psoriasis. In view of expense and practical application, their use is limited to resistant lesions and localized disease. (Level of evidence 2+, Grade of recommendation B). But in other conditions there is no convincing evidence for its use. (Level of evidence 3+, Grade of recommendation C). © 2016 Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology, and Leprology. Source

Mythri K.M.,Institute of Nephro Urology | Samaga M.P.,Mandya Institute of Medical science
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2013

Tuberculosis is commonest opportunistic infection in HIV positive patients, in India. Rapid progression of tuberculosis in HIV infected patients makes early diagnosis critical. Though smear microscopy remains the mainstay of diagnosis, has low specificity. Culture techniques are sensitive and specific but are slow while molecular methods are rapid but expensive. Phage amplification which utilizes specific mycobacteriophages to detect viable M.tuberculosis in respiratory samples is simple and rapid. This study was done to show, comparative evaluation of Phage assay with sputum microscopy and culture on Lowenstein-Jensen media in HIV seropositive patients. Three consecutive sputum samples were collected and subjected to ZN smear. After decontamination and concentration techniques, samples were used for Phage assay, cultured on LJ and smears were prepared. The overall sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of Phage assay when compared to LJ culture was 83.3%,100%,1.0and 0.92 respectively. With respect to smear-negative specimens, the sensitivity was 50%. Source

Reddy R.,PESIMSR | Shashi Kumar B.,Mandya Institute of Medical science | Harish M.,Mandya Institute of Medical science
Indian Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2011

It is a known fact that cutaneous sarcoidosis is a great imitator in dermatology. We report three cases of cutaneous sarcoidosis without systemic involvement and with varied dermatologic presentation with regard to age and morphology. Lesions mimicked various common dermatologic conditions, causing great confusion for the diagnosis and posing problems for management. Awareness of these varied morphologic presentations is essential for the early diagnosis and management of the master mimicker - cutaneous sarcoidosis. Source

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