MANDESPACE

Toulouse, France

MANDESPACE

Toulouse, France
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Durin C.,French National Center for Space Studies | Mandeville J.C.,Mandespace | Perrin J.M.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets | Year: 2016

The physical properties and the number density of micrometeoroids and orbital debris are important parameters of the space environment. High-velocity interaction with spacecraft can be of serious concern for the operation of longlived space structures and for man operations in space. Two experiments devoted to the detection of microparticles were flown recently. They were based on capacitor-type sensors that allowed the detection of particles larger than 1. 3 μm in diameter. One of the experiments, the First Orbital System for an Active Detection of Debris, on the International Space Station was retrieved after space exposure. It was then possible to get additional data and to assess the behavior of the sensors. Laboratory analyses provided clues on the composition and the origin of the impacting particles. The second experiment, the Second Orbital System for an Active Detection of Debris, was deployed on the Satellite for Scientific Applications-D on a sun-synchronous orbit. The behavior of the experiments was nominal, and impact flux data recorded could be compared with earlier experiments and with current flux models. However, in both experiments, a great number of impacts appeared to be not random and could be associated with peculiar events, generating particles at a higher altitude. An attempt to assess the origin and the orbital evolution of the particles is given. Copyright © 2016 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. All rights reserved.


Mandeville J.-C.,MANDESPACE | Perrin J.-M.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Perrin J.-M.,Laboratoire ATmospheres Milieux | Vidal L.,CNRS Mulhouse Institute of Materials Science
Acta Astronautica | Year: 2012

During the last three decades a wide variety of surfaces have been brought back to Earth after being exposed to space environment. The impact features found on these surfaces are used to evaluate the damages caused to spacecraft and can give clues to the characteristics of the orbital debris and meteoroids that created them. In order to derive more precisely the particle parameters and to improve the analysis of projectile remnants, we have performed an extensive analysis of craters caused by the impact of high velocity particles on thick ductile targets, using a micro-particle accelerator. We show that from the geometry of the craters and from the analysis of the remnants it is possible to derive the main characteristics of the projectiles. In particular, using up-to-date instrumentation, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometer, we found that even small residues inside craters can be identified. However, this study shows that a velocity resolution better than 1. km/s would be appropriate to obtain a fair calibration of the impact processes on a ductile target. This would allow to decipher with precision impact features on ductile surfaces exposed to space environment. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Mandeville J.-C.,MANDESPACE | Perrin J.-M.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Perrin J.-M.,Laboratoire ATmospheres Milieux | Vidal L.,CNRS Mulhouse Institute of Materials Science
Acta Astronautica | Year: 2012

During the last three decades a wide variety of surfaces have been brought back to Earth after being exposed to space environment. The impact features found on these surfaces are used to evaluate the damages caused to spacecraft and can give clues to the characteristics of the orbital debris and meteoroids that created them. In order to derive more precisely the particle parameters and to improve the analysis of projectile remnants, we have performed an extensive analysis of craters caused by the impact of high velocity particles on thick ductile targets, using a micro-particle accelerator. We show that from the geometry of the craters and from the analysis of the remnants it is possible to derive the main characteristics of the projectiles. In particular, using up-to-date instrumentation, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometer, we found that even small residues inside craters can be identified. However, this study shows that a velocity resolution better than 1 km/s would be appropriate to obtain a fair calibration of the impact processes on a ductile target. This would allow to decipher with precision impact features on ductile surfaces exposed to space environment. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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