Maire E.,CNRS Laboratory for Materials: Engineering and Science |
Withers P.J.,Manchester X ray Imaging Facility |
Withers P.J.,Rutherford Appleton Laboratory
International Materials Reviews | Year: 2014
X-ray computer tomography (CT) is fast becoming an accepted tool within the materials science community for the acquisition of 3D images. Here the authors review the current state of the art as CT transforms from a qualitative diagnostic tool to a quantitative one. Our review considers first the image acquisition process, including the use of iterative reconstruction strategies suited to specific segmentation tasks and emerging methods that provide more insight (e.g. fast and high resolution imaging, crystallite (grain) imaging) than conventional attenuation based tomography. Methods and shortcomings of CT are examined for the quantification of 3D volumetric data to extract key topological parameters such as phase fractions, phase contiguity, and damage levels as well as density variations. As a non-destructive technique, CT is an ideal means of following structural development over time via time lapse sequences of 3D images (sometimes called 3D movies or 4D imaging). This includes information needed to optimise manufacturing processes, for example sintering or solidification, or to highlight the proclivity of specific degradation processes under service conditions, such as intergranular corrosion or fatigue crack growth. Besides the repeated application of static 3D image quantification to track such changes, digital volume correlation (DVC) and particle tracking (PT) methods are enabling the mapping of deformation in 3D over time. Finally the use of CT images is considered as the starting point for numerical modelling based on realistic microstructures, for example to predict flow through porous materials, the crystalline deformation of polycrystalline aggregates or the mechanical properties of composite materials. © 2014 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining and ASM International.
Lowe T.,Manchester X ray Imaging Facility |
Garwood R.J.,Manchester X ray Imaging Facility |
Garwood R.J.,University of Manchester |
Simonsen T.J.,Natural History Museum in London |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Royal Society Interface | Year: 2013
Studies of model insects have greatly increased our understanding of animal development. Yet, they are limited in scope to this small pool of model species: a small number of representatives for a hyperdiverse group with highly varied developmental processes. One factor behind this narrow scope is the challenging nature of traditional methods of study, such as histology and dissection, which can preclude quantitative analysis and do not allow the development of a single individual to be followed. Here, we use high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT) to overcome these issues, and three-dimensionally image numerous lepidopteran pupae throughout their development. The resulting models are presented in the electronic supplementary material, as are figures and videos, documenting a single individual throughout development. They provide new insight and details of lepidopteran metamorphosis, and allow the measurement of tracheal and gut volume. Furthermore, this study demonstrates early and rapid development of the tracheae, which become visible in scans just 12 h after pupation. This suggests that there is less remodelling of the tracheal system than previously expected, and is methodologically important because the tracheal system is an often-understudied character system in development. In the future, this form of time-lapse CT-scanning could allow faster and more detailed developmental studies on a wider range of taxa than is presently possible. & 2013 The Authors. Published by the Royal Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.