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News Article | May 18, 2017

Who owns your health data and why? 'Public ownership of health data is the most plausible way forward.' Who owns data about your health: you? The healthcare institution? The funding body? This new study explores the conundrum of personal health data ownership. It considers the interests of all stakeholders and recommends public ownership of health data as the most plausible way forward. The research highlights several different groups who would claim rightful ownership of the health data, amidst people's increasing concerns that it is being wrongfully appropriated. However, the development of personalized medicine relies upon the aggregation and analysis of personal health data. This article recommends and justifies the most plausible model for the ownership of health data and explores the need for recognition of personal interest as well as ownership claims. Data Sharing and the idea of ownership, Jonathan Montgomery - Professor of Health Care Law at University College London and Chair of the This link will be live from 18th May 2017 at 12:01am BST Video link can been found here: http://www. Who really benefits from new cancer treatment development? 'There is an increasing gulf between high-income and low-middle income countries regarding the affordability of these drugs.' Unlike other branches of economics, the emotive issue of cancer drugs is intricately associated with socio-political factors, emotional overlay, and public pressure which can lead to industry manipulation. This new study examines the value added by new cancer drugs being developed in a multi-billion-pound market and the socio-political agenda around them and highlights the increasing gulf between high-income and low-middle income countries regarding the affordability of these drugs. The authors propose that to achieve a more value-based pathway to drug development, serious changes within the industry need to occur. Examples of such change could be federal authorities taking initiatives in conducting clinical trials and low and middle income countries taking proactive steps in developing and drugs with active properties similar to those that have been previously licensed. Economics of Cancer Medicines: for whose benefit? Richard Sullivan - Institute of Cancer Policy, King's College London and KHP Comprehensive Cancer Centre, UK and Bishal Gyawali. This link will be live from 18th May 2017 at 12:01am BST Video link can been found here: http://www. Does personalised medicine live up to the hype? 'The current optimism for personalised medicine is distorting clinical consultations, resource allocation and research funding prioritization' Personalised medicine is widely considered to be the way of the future for medicine. This article examines how the promise and the hype around personalised medicine is changing healthcare. The study's author suggests that the current optimism for personalised medicine is distorting clinical consultations, resource allocation and research funding prioritization when in fact most common diseases are caused by a complex interplay of multiple genetic and environmental factors. research concludes that clinicians have a key role to play both as innovators and as a firewall against hype, bringing a sober realism into the ongoing debates. The promise and the hype of 'personalised medicine' Timothy Maughan -- Clinical Director of the CRUK/MRC Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology at the University of Oxford and an Honorary Consultant Clinical Oncologist at the Oxford University Hospital Foundation Trust. This link will be live from 18th May 2017 at 12:01am BST Video link can been found here: http://www. Does personalised medicine help us to know ourselves? 'Stratified medicine offers a newly precise kind of humanising health care through societal solidarity with the riskiest.' This article examines how and why self-knowledge is important to communication about risk and behaviour change. It argues that communication about genetic risk between specialists and the public could be improved through deeper engagement with the values, beliefs and cultural commitments of the diverse public. This research claims that genetic knowledge should not properly be called 'self-knowledge' and so temptations to reduce identity into genomic terms should be resisted. Moreover, any effort to change people's behaviour must engage with cultural self-knowledge, values and beliefs, with genetic risk information acting as a catalyst. The article concludes that self-knowledge may be found in compassionate communion, made possible through processes of stratification. Stratified medicine thus offers as a newly precise kind of humanising health care through societal solidarity with the riskiest. Self-knowledge and risk in stratified medicine, Joshua Hordern - Associate Professor of Christian Ethics, Faculty of Theology of Religion, Harris Manchester College, University of Oxford and leader of the Oxford Healthcare Values Partnership This link will be live from 18th May 2017 at 12:01am BST Video link can been found here: http://www. What is the real-life value of precision medicine? 'Uncritical adoption of the concept of precision medicine could make healthcare finances even more difficult in every country with those most in need bearing the cost.' "Precision medicine", medical care tailored for specific groups of patients using techniques such as genetic profiling, carries huge potential in the treatment of many diseases. However it also raises troubling questions about the use of resources. In this research it is argued that precision medicine risks concentrating resources on those that already experience greater access to healthcare and power in society, nationally as well as globally. Healthcare payers, clinicians, and patients must all be involved in optimising the potential of precision medicine. Throughout the article the NHS RightCare Programme is referred to as an example of a national initiative aiming to improve value and equity in the context of NHS England. It is concluded that, despite great promise, at present precision medicine is potentially low value when applied to complex disease and healthcare payers. Uncritical adoption of the concept of precision medicine could make healthcare finances even more difficult in every country with those most in need bearing the cost. There is, therefore, a need for clear directions for clinicians on how it can be best utilised. Equity and value in 'precision medicine' Muir Gray - Department of Primary Care, University of Oxford, United Kingdom, Viktor Dombrádi and Tyra Lagerberg This link will be live from 18th May 2017 at 12:01am BST Video link can been found here: http://www. When referencing the article: Please include Journal title, author, published by Taylor & Francis and the following statement: Read the full article online here: [Article link] This links will be live from 18th May 2017 at 12:01am BST To arrange an interview or for a copy of the study, please contact: Taylor & Francis Group partners with researchers, scholarly societies, universities and libraries worldwide to bring knowledge to life. As one of the world's leading publishers of scholarly journals, books, ebooks and reference works our content spans all areas of Humanities, Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Science, and Technology and Medicine. From our network of offices in Oxford, New York, Philadelphia, Boca Raton, Boston, Melbourne, Singapore, Beijing, Tokyo, Stockholm, New Delhi and Johannesburg, Taylor & Francis staff provide local expertise and support to our editors, societies and authors and tailored, efficient customer service to our library colleagues.

News Article | May 25, 2017

As investigators piece together links surrounding Manchester attacker Salman Abedi, shocking details about his transition from a cannabis-smoking university dropout to the Islamic State group (ISIS) suicide bomber have emerged. Born to Libyan parents on New Year’s Eve in 1994, Abedi had a lonely childhood. His family fled their native country and moved to Manchester, England after becoming enemies of Muammar Gaddafi’s regime, BBC reported. His family had spent four years in London before moving to Manchester where his father worked as a muezzin at a mosque in Didsbury. He had two sisters and a brother. He was the second of four children. Read: Salman Abedi, Manchester Bomber Born To Libyan Refugees Known To Security Services: UK Home Secretary Abedi attended Burnage Academy for Boys school, Manchester, from 2009 to 2011, after which he went to the Manchester College till 2013. He also went to University of Salford, Greater Manchester, in 2014. However, he dropped out of university and took up a job in a bakery, the report said. He grew up a few miles away from the place where he detonated a suicide bomb and killed 22 people, mostly young girls who had gathered for singer Ariana Grande’s concert. The 22-year-old Abedi was remembered as a “short-tempered” yet “fun guy” who drank alcohol and even smoked cannabis. He was also believed to have links with local gangs, before becoming too religious, Independent reported. “He was an outgoing fun guy but since he went to Libya, he came back a different guy. He used to drink, smoke weed then all of a sudden he turned religious and I’ve not seen him since 2011,” a person who knew Abedi from school told Manchester Evening News. A clue pointing towards Abedi’s possible radicalisation was the sudden appearance of a black flag on the roof of Abedi’s house on Elsemore Road. The flag had some Arabic words written on it. “There was a black flag with Arabic writing on it on the roof for a bit, a few years ago,” Abedi’s neighbor told the BBC. Speaking with the Wall Street Journal, Jomana, Abedi's sister, said she thought her brother was driven to murder because he wanted revenge for "the explosives America drops on children in Syria." "I think he saw children —  Muslim children —  dying everywhere, and wanted revenge," Jomana told the Wall Street Journal. "He saw explosives America drops on children in Syria, and he wanted revenge. Whether he got that is between him and God," she added. Investigators believed that Abedi had packed a suitcase with homemade explosives and nails. He used the same method for carrying out the attack that ISIS used during the Brussels airport attack and the Molenbeek metro station attack last year, the report stated. Abedi was already known to security services, U.K. Home Secretary Amber Rudd said Wednesday. “The intelligence services know a lot of people, and I'm sure we will find out more what level they knew about him in due course,” she told the BBC.

Kiersma M.E.,Manchester College
American journal of pharmaceutical education | Year: 2011

To describe patient safety instruction in health professional curricula, including medicine, nursing, pharmacy, and dentistry. A systematic review of the literature from 1966 through 2010 was conducted using 6 databases and based on 3 search criteria: safety management, patient safety, and curriculum. One hundred fifty-four articles were identified and 23 met inclusion criteria. A variety of educational methods have been used in health profession curricula to promote patient safety including lectures, workshops, objective structured clinical examinations, standardized patients, simulation exercises, root cause analysis, quality assurance projects, and other interactive learning methods. The development of patient safety curricula has been primarily discipline-specific, with little interdisciplinary research found. Safe, patient-centered care is directly influenced by the quality of education that healthcare professions students receive. From this literature review, research is needed to guide curricular change, specifically focusing on instructional methods and interdisciplinary collaborations.

MIAMI, Feb. 16, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- The Female Health Company / Veru Healthcare (NASDAQ:FHCO) today announced the appointment of Matthew C. Gosnell, Ph.D., as Senior Vice President of Manufacturing, Preclinical and Pharmaceutical Development, effective February 15, 2017.  Gosnell has a Ph.D. in analytical chemistry and more than 20 years of experience in pharmaceutical manufacturing, development and sourcing.  His experience ranges from preclinical and investigational new drugs (INDs) through 505(b)(2) and 505(b)(1) New Drug Applications (NDAs) and commercialization.  He will be responsible for identifying clinical and commercial manufacturing partners, chemical synthesis and process scale up development, development and clinical trial materials manufacturing and processes, documentation and submissions related to chemistry, manufacturing and control. “An accomplished scientist and drug developer, Dr. Gosnell brings hands-on experience in strategic planning and execution of process development and manufacturing of both early and late stage drug products,” said Mitchell Steiner, M.D., President and Chief Executive Officer of The Female Health Company / Veru Healthcare.  “He has extensive knowledge and expertise in leading multiple projects in various stages of development and identifying and managing new drug manufacturing sites for clinical development and commercial supply.  Over his career, Dr. Gosnell has made significant contributions to several 505(b)(2) and 505(b)(1) NDAs including Celebrex®, Risperdal® Consta® and Vivitrol® and served in senior level positions with GTx, Alkermes, Pharmacia, McNeil Specialty Products (a division of Johnson & Johnson) and Miles (a unit of Bayer AG).” Prior to joining the Company, Dr. Gosnell served as Senior Director, Product Development and Analytical Sciences for GTx, Inc., where he advanced multiple drug candidates into successive clinical stages of development.  Earlier in his career, he was Director, Quality Technical Services (Analytical Development and Stability) for Alkermes, Inc., Analytical Team Leader for Pharmacia Research and Development and Senior Scientist at McNeil Specialty Products Company.  Dr. Gosnell began his career as Scientist with Miles, Inc., after earning a Doctoral degree in Analytical Chemistry from Oklahoma State University and a Bachelor of Science degree in Chemistry and Mathematics-Computer Science from Manchester College. About The Female Health Company / Veru Healthcare The Female Health Company / Veru Healthcare is a pharmaceutical and medical device company, with a focus on the development and commercialization of pharmaceuticals that qualify for the FDA's 505(b)(2) accelerated regulatory approval pathway as well as the 505(b)(1) pathway.  The Company does business both as "Veru Healthcare" and as "The Female Health Company" and is organized as follows: More information about the Female Health Company and its products can be found at, and  For corporate and investor-related information about the Company, please visit

News Article | December 1, 2016

BOSTON, MA--(Marketwired - December 01, 2016) - Pieris Pharmaceuticals, Inc. ( : PIRS), a clinical-stage biotechnology company advancing novel biotherapeutics through its proprietary Anticalin® technology platform for cancer and other diseases, today announced that it has appointed Claude Knopf as Senior Vice President and Chief Business Officer. Mr. Knopf is an accomplished executive in the biotech industry and brings to Pieris a demonstrable track record of success in strategy, corporate development, licensing, alliance management, marketing and sales spanning more than two decades. "Claude's appointment follows our strategy of strengthening our leadership team in Boston with high caliber talent. His consistent track record of successfully leading teams spanning diverse therapeutic areas including oncology and immunology will bring immediate value to Pieris, and it's a pleasure to welcome him aboard," said Stephen Yoder, President and CEO. Prior to joining Pieris, Mr. Knopf served from July 2013 to July 2016 as Senior Vice President, Global Head Business Development & Licensing/Mergers and Acquisitions at Baxalta (formerly Baxter Bioscience) where through partnering and acquisitions he helped develop the Oncology business and pipeline and strengthened the Hematology and Immunology divisions. Prior to joining Baxalta, from 2001 to 2013 Mr. Knopf held several business development, alliance management, licensing and marketing roles at Novartis, most recently as the Head of Business Development and Licensing - Strategic Planning, Vaccines European Region. From 1995 until joining Novartis in 2001, Mr. Knopf also held several marketing, sales and finance positions at Merck Sharpe & Dohme. Mr. Knopf holds a Master of International Business Studies from the University of South Carolina, Moore School of Business and an BA in Economics from Manchester College. "I'm excited to join Pieris and a great team," said Mr. Knopf, "and I am looking forward to helping advance a pipeline of novel and highly differentiated therapies." In connection with the hiring of Mr. Knopf, the Company's Board of Directors authorized the grant to Mr. Knopf of a non-qualified stock option to purchase up to 500,000 shares of the Company's common stock, effective as of the first day of his employment. The option grant is an inducement material to Mr. Knopf's entering into employment with the Company in accordance with NASDAQ listing Rule 5635(c)(4). The option has an exercise price of $1.45 per share, the fair market value of the Company's common stock on the date of grant and will vest as to 25% of the shares on the first anniversary of Mr. Knopf's employment and as to an additional 6.25% of the shares per quarter thereafter, provided that he continues to provide service to the Company on the applicable vesting date. The option has a ten-year term and is subject to the terms and conditions of a stock option agreement. Pieris is a clinical-stage biotechnology company that discovers and develops Anticalin® protein-based drugs to target validated disease pathways in a unique and transformative way. Our pipeline includes immuno-oncology multi-specifics tailored for the tumor microenvironment, an inhaled Anticalin protein to treat uncontrolled asthma and a half-life-optimized Anticalin protein to treat anemia. Proprietary to Pieris, Anticalin proteins are a novel class of therapeutics validated in the clinic and by partnerships with leading pharmaceutical companies. Anticalin® is a registered trademark of Pieris. For more information, visit This press release contains forward-looking statements as that term is defined in Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Statements in this press release that are not purely historical are forward-looking statements. Such forward-looking statements include, among other things, references to novel technologies and methods; our business and product development plans and timelines;. Actual results could differ from those projected in any forward-looking statements due to numerous factors. Such factors include, among others, our ability to raise the additional funding we will need to continue to pursue our business and product development plans; the inherent uncertainties associated with developing new products or technologies and operating as a development stage company; our ability to develop, complete clinical trials for, obtain approvals for and commercialize any of our product candidates; competition in the industry in which we operate and market conditions. These forward-looking statements are made as of the date of this press release, and we assume no obligation to update the forward-looking statements, or to update the reasons why actual results could differ from those projected in the forward-looking statements, except as required by law. Investors should consult all of the information set forth herein and should also refer to the risk factor disclosure set forth in the reports and other documents we file with the SEC available at, including without limitation the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015 and the Company's Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q.

News Article | February 28, 2017

MENLO PARK, CA, February 28, 2017-- Royal E. "Gene" Bales has been included in Marquis Who's Who. As in all Marquis Who's Who biographical volumes, individuals profiled are selected on the basis of current reference value. Factors such as position, noteworthy accomplishments, visibility, and prominence in a field are all taken into account during the selection process.At his retirement in 2000, Dr. Bales was named Emeritus Professor of Philosophy by Menlo College, Atherton, CA. He served the institution in a variety of roles beginning in 1962; he was an instructor in music and philosophy from 1962 to 1969, then a professor, and in the 1990s, a full professor. Dr. Bales also served as chairman of the social sciences and humanities department for three years, dean of liberal arts for five years, provost of the college for eight years, and continued to teach a couple of courses a year until 2008. From 1971 to 1987, he was a standing member of the school's president's advisory council.In 1956, Dr. Bales graduated cum laude with a Bachelor of Music Education from the University of Wichita. He began his career the same year as a music teacher for Kansas Public Schools. Dr. Bales also continued his education while serving in the U.S. Army Reserve, receiving a Master of Arts from the University of Wichita in 1960. Dr. Bales, who spent a total of eight years with the U.S. Army Reserve, rounded out his education by obtaining a Ph.D. from Stanford University in 1968.Along with his positions with Kansas Public Schools and Menlo College, Dr. Bales also held visiting fellow roles at Harris-Manchester College at Oxford University, and Wong Visiting Professor at Guangdong University of Law and Commerce. He served as president of the El Camino Youth Symphony Association from 1985 to 1987, and has been an honorary governor of Harris-Manchester College since 1994. His professional affiliations include the American Philosophical Association and Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia.Dr. Bales, who has contributed a number of articles to professional journals over the years, has focused on his writing talents since his retirement. He is the author of the crime mystery novel, "Grit Beneath My Nails," published in 2014, and the spiritual memoir, "But Then My Voice Changed," published in 2012. Dr. Bales was also a contributing author to the 9th edition of the textbook "About Philosophy," published in 2006. Furthermore, retirement allows him to spend more time on his passion for music. Dr. Bales has been married to his wife, Kathleen, since 1960; the couple has two grown children.In addition to receiving a research grant from the Stanford-Warsaw Exchange and other academic honors over the years, Dr. Bales was proud to be named principal investigator for Menlo College in the National Science Foundation- funded Stanford University Consortium for Computers in Education in 1971-1972. His various accomplishments have been featured in the 44th through 70th editions of Who's Who in America, the 7th and 8th editions of Who's Who in American Education, the 28th through 43rd editions of Who's Who in the West, and multiple editions of Who's Who in the WorlAbout Marquis Who's Who :Since 1899, when A. N. Marquis printed the First Edition of Who's Who in America , Marquis Who's Who has chronicled the lives of the most accomplished individuals and innovators from every significant field of endeavor, including politics, business, medicine, law, education, art, religion and entertainment. Today, Who's Who in America remains an essential biographical source for thousands of researchers, journalists, librarians and executive search firms around the world. Marquis now publishes many Who's Who titles, including Who's Who in America , Who's Who in the World , Who's Who in American Law , Who's Who in Medicine and Healthcare , Who's Who in Science and Engineering , and Who's Who in Asia . Marquis publications may be visited at the official Marquis Who's Who website at

Li A.W.,St Elizabeths Medical Center | Goldsmith C.-A.W.,Manchester College
Alternative Medicine Review | Year: 2012

Stress and anxiety have been implicated as contributors to many chronic diseases and to decreased quality of life, even with pharmacologic treatment. Efforts are underway to find non-pharmacologic therapies to relieve stress and anxiety, and yoga is one option for which results are promising. The focus of this review is on the results of human trials assessing the role of yoga in improving the signs and symptoms of stress and anxiety. Of 35 trials addressing the effects of yoga on anxiety and stress, 25 noted a significant decrease in stress and/or anxiety symptoms when a yoga regimen was implemented; however, many of the studies were also hindered by limitations, such as small study populations, lack of randomization, and lack of a control group. Fourteen of the 35 studies reported biochemical and physiological markers of stress and anxiety, but yielded inconsistent support of yoga for relief of stress and anxiety. Evaluation of the current primary literature is suggestive of benefits of yoga in relieving stress and anxiety, but further investigation into this relationship using large, well-defined populations, adequate controls, randomization and long duration should be explored before recommending yoga as a treatment option. Copyright © 2012 Alternative Medicine Review, LLC. All Rights Reserved.

News Article | February 15, 2017

The simulation hypothesis is the idea that reality is a digital simulation. Technological advances will inevitably produce automated artificial superintelligence that will, in turn, create simulations to better understand the universe. This opens the door for the idea that superintelligence already exists and created simulations now occupied by humans. At first blush the notion that reality is pure simulacra seems preposterous, but the hypothesis springs from decades of scientific research and is taken seriously by academics, scientists, and entrepreneurs like Stephen Hawking and Elon Musk. From Plato's allegory of the cave to The Matrix ideas about simulated reality can be found scattered through history and literature. The modern manifestation of the simulation argument is postulates that, like Moore's Law, over time computing power becomes exponentially more robust. Barring a disaster that resets technological progression, experts speculate that it is inevitable computing capacity will one day be powerful enough to generate realistic simulations. TechRepublic's smart person's guide is a routinely updated "living" precis loaded with up-to-date information about about how the simulation hypothesis works, who it affects, and why it's important. SEE: Check out all of TechRepublic's smart person's guides The simulation hypothesis advances the idea that simulations might be the inevitable outcome of technological evolution. Though ideas about simulated reality are far from new and novel, the contemporary hypothesis springs from research conducted by Oxford University professor of philosophy Nick Bostrom. In 2003 Bostrom presented a paper that proposed a trilemma, a decision between three challenging options, related to the potential of future superintelligence to develop simulations. Bostrom argues this likelihood is nonzero, meaning the odds of a simulated reality are astronomically small, but because percentage likelihood is not zero we must consider rational possibilities that include a simulated reality. Bostrom does not propose that humans occupy a simulation. Rather, he argues that massive computational ability developed by posthuman superintelligence will likely develop simulations to better understand that nature of reality. In his book Superintelligence using anthropic rhetoric Bostrom argues that the odds of a population with human-like population advancing to superintelligence is "very close to zero," or (with an emphasis on the word or) the odds that a superintelligence would desire to create simulations is also "very close to zero," or the odds that people with human-like experiences actually live in a simulation is "very close to one." He concludes by arguing that if the claim "very close to one" is the correct answer and most people do live in simulations, then the odds are good that we too exist in a simulation. Simulation hypothesis has many critics, namely those in academic communities who question an overreliance on anthropic reasoning and scientific detractors who point out simulations need not be conscious to be studied by future superintelligence. But as artificial intelligence and machine learning emerge as powerful business and cultural trends, many of Bostrom's ideas are going mainstream. SEE: Research: 63% say business will benefit from AI (Tech Pro Research) It's natural to wonder if the simulation hypothesis has real-world applications, or if it's a fun but purely abstract consideration. For business and culture, the answer is unambiguous: It doesn't matter if we live in a simulation or not. The accelerating pace of automated technology will have a significant impact on business, politics, and culture in the near future. The simulation hypothesis is coupled inherently with technological evolution and the development of superintelligence. While superintelligence remains speculative, investments in narrow and artificial general intelligence are significant. Using the space race as an analogue, advances in artificial intelligence create technological innovations that build, destroy, and augment industry. IBM is betting big with Watson and anticipates a rapidly emerging $2 trillion market for cognitive products. Cybersecurity experts are investing heavily in AI and automation to fend off malware and hackers. In a 2016 interview with TechRepublic, United Nations chief technology diplomat, Atefeh Riazi, anticipated the economic impact of AI to be profound and referred to the technology as "humanity's final innovation." SEE: Artificial Intelligence and IT: The good, the bad and the scary (Tech Pro Research) Though long-term prognostication about the impact of automated technology is ill-advised, in the short term advances in machine learning, automation, and artificial intelligence represent a paradigm shift akin to the development of the internet or the modern mobile phone. In other words, the economy post-automation will be dramatically different. AI will hammer manufacturing industries, and logistics distribution will lean heavily on self-driving cars, ships, drones, and aircraft, and financial services jobs that require pattern recognition will evaporate. Conversely, automation could create demand for inherently interpersonal skills like HR, sales, manual labor, retail, and creative work. "Digital technologies are in many ways complements, not substitutes for, creativity," Erik Brynjolfsson said, in an interview with TechRepublic. "If somebody comes up with a new song, a video, or piece of software there's no better time in history to be a creative person who wants to reach not just hundreds or thousands, but millions and billions of potential customers." SEE: IT leader's guide to the future of artificial intelligence (Tech Pro Research) The golden age of artificial intelligence began in 1956 at the Ivy League research institution Dartmouth College with the now-infamous proclamation, "every aspect of learning or any other feature of intelligence can be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it." The conference established AI and computational protocols that defined a generation of research. The conference was preceded and inspired by developments at Manchester College in 1951 that produced a program that could play checkers, and another program that could play chess. Though excited researchers anticipated the speedy emergence of human-level machine intelligence, programming intelligence unironically proved to be a steep challenge. By the mid-1970s the field entered the so-called "first AI winter." The era was marked by the development of strong theories limited by insufficient computing power. Spring follows winter, and by the 1980s AI and automation technology grew from the sunshine of faster hardware and the boom of consumer technology markets. By the end of the century parallel processing—the ability to perform multiple computations at one time—emerged. In 1997 IBM's Deep Blue defeated human chess player Gary Kasparov. Last year Google's DeepMind defeated a human at Go, and this year the same technology easily beat four of the best human poker players. Driven and funded by research and academic institutions, governments, and the private sector these benchmarks indicate a rapidly accelerating automation and machine learning market. Major industries like financial services, healthcare, sports, travel, and transportation are all deeply invested in artificial intelligence. Facebook, Google, and Amazon are using AI innovation for consumer applications, and a number of companies are in a race to build and deploy artificial general intelligence. Some AI forecasters like Ray Kurzweil predict a future with the human brain cheerly connected to the cloud. Other AI researchers aren't so optimistic. Bostrom and his colleagues in particular warn that creating artificial general intelligence could produce an existential threat. Among the many terrifying dangers of superintelligence—ranging from out-of-control killer robots to economic collapse—the primary threat of AI is the coupling of of anthropomorphism with the misalignment of AI goals. Meaning, humans are likely to imbue intelligent machines with human characteristics like empathy. An intelligent machine, however, might be programed to prioritize goal accomplishment over human needs. In a terrifying scenario known as instrumental convergence, or the "paper clip maximizer," a superintelligent narrowly focused AI designed to produce paper clips would turn humans into gray goo in pursuit of resources. SEE: Research: Companies lack skills to implement and support AI and machine learning (Tech Pro Research) It may be impossible to test or experience the simulation hypothesis, but it's easy to learn more about the hypothesis. TechRepublic's Hope Reese enumerated the best books on artificial intelligence, including Bostrom's essential tome Superintelligence, Kurzweil's The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology, and Our Final Invention: Artificial Intelligence and the End of the Human Era by James Barrat. Make sure to read TechRepublic's smart person's guides on machine learning, Google's DeepMind, and IBM's Watson. Tech Pro Research provides a quick glossary on AI and research on how companies are using machine learning and big data. Finally, to have some fun with hands-on simulations, grab a copy of Cities: Skylines, Sim City, Elite:Dangerous, or Planet Coaster on game platform Steam. These small-scale environments will let you experiment with game AI while you build your own simulated reality.

Moreno J.L.,Manchester College
The Annals of pharmacotherapy | Year: 2012

To evaluate the potential role of exenatide for weight loss in overweight or obese adults without diabetes. PubMed (1946-August 2012) and EMBASE (1974-August 2012) were used to conduct a literature search utilizing the terms exenatide, weight loss, obesity, and overweight. Additional references were identified by bibliographic review of relevant articles. Studies assessing the use of exenatide in adult subjects without type 2 diabetes or polycystic ovary syndrome and reporting effects on body weight were included. Five studies were identified that reported use of exenatide in nondiabetic adults and included weight change as an outcomes measure. In all 5 of these studies, subjects taking exenatide experienced statistically significant weight loss, which ranged from 2.0 ± 2.8 to 5.1 ± 0.5 kg. Two of the trials were randomized, placebo-controlled studies; 1 trial was a randomized, open-label investigation; 1 study had a prospective, open-label cohort design; and the remaining study was a chart review. Adverse events experienced with exenatide were primarily gastrointestinal in nature, although each trial reported the drug to be well tolerated. Obesity continues to be a national epidemic, while choices for effective pharmacologic treatments are extremely limited. Exenatide appears to have promising effects on weight in overweight or obese adults without type 2 diabetes. Further investigations with large, placebo-controlled trials assessing long-term weight loss as a primary outcome are warranted.

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