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Sobti N.,University | Juneja S.,University | Yadav P.K.,CCS Haryana Agricultural University | Chibbar R.N.,University of Sasketchewan | Behl R.K.,Manav Institute of Pharmacy
Annals of Biology | Year: 2012

Vermicomposting is a simple biotechnological process of composting, in which certain species of earthworms are used to enhance the process of waste conversion and produce a better end product. Vermicompost is derived by rearing worms on organic work mixed with cattle dung. It contains plant nutrients like N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn and Zn which have a positive effect on the plant growth, yield, soil fertility and soil microbes. The resulting vermicompost has been shown to have several positive impacts on cereal plant growth, grain yield and quality. Metagenomics has paved the way for independent assessment and exploitation of microbial communities present in complex ecosystems like vermicompost and recovery of novel biomolecules. The application of biotechnological tools resulted in the generation of large datasets derived from various environments such as soil. In this way, structure, functions and interactions of microbial communities were elucidated. This commentary briefly summarizes views revealing the various dynamic of the soil-plant relationship with special emphasis on vermicompost and possible gene changes in host plant for better nutrition and stress resistance, in turn impacting grain quality and yield in cereals. Source


Berwal R.,Manav Institute of Pharmacy | Bhyan B.,Manav Institute of Pharmacy | Gulshan,Manav Institute of Pharmacy | Berwal N.,Manav Institute of Pharmacy
Annals of Biology | Year: 2012

Drug discovery is a process of searching new therapeutically useful entities. The process of bringing a new drug to the market consists of four main stages-drug discovery, preclinical testing, clinical trials and FDA review. Drug discovery involves the searching of a new compound by lead search, combinatorial chemistry and HTS. After getting a new compound, preclinical testing and preformulation are done. INDA is required for continuing, the process in phases of clinical trials. Final step is submission of NDA to FDA, and a drug comes in the market after approval of FDA. This process continues here also with post-market surveillance, long term effect of a drug is studied. Drug discovery is a challenging process requiring a huge amount of money, time and man power. Source


Bhyan B.,Manav Institute of Pharmacy | Jangra S.,Markandeshwar Institute of Science and Technology | Berwal R.,Manav Institute of Pharmacy | Khurana G.,Manav Institute of Pharmacy | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Biology | Year: 2012

Novel muccoadhsive buccal tablets (NMBT) of diclofenac potassium (DP) and tizanidine hydrochloride (TH) were prepared as core in cup fashion to release and permeate the drugs unidirectionally towards the buccal mucosa to reach systemic circulation directly. Special punches were designed and fabricated to prepare buccoadhsive core in cup tablets by making protrusion in the 11 mm upper flat-faced punch. The buccoadhsive cups were prepared by direct compression method using polymers like ethylcellulose, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, chitosan, carbopol 934P, hydroxyl propyl methylcellulose (HPMCK4M) on single station tabletting machine. NMBT were evaluated for weight uniformity, thickness, hardness, friability, diameter, thickness, percentage drug content, swelling, mucoadhesive strength, surface pH, in vitro drug release. In vitro permeability studies of NMBTs were conducted in 200 ml phosphate buffer pH 6.8 (37±2°C) as dissolution media using type I (basket) apparatus and stirred at 50 rpm/min. Tablet was attached outside basket with the help of cyanoacrylate from backing membrane cup side as the mucoadhesive side was exposed to mucus membrane in the oral cavity. Formula F7 containing the polymer carbopol and HPMC K4M in ratio 1 : 1 was selected as the best formulation because it satisfies all the evaluation parameters. The formulation showed unidirectional drug release through the buccal mucosa in a controlled fashion with a promising adhesion strength. Source

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