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Kibret K.T.,Wollega University | Yalew A.W.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Belaineh B.G.,MSH USAID Management science for Health MSH | Asres M.M.,MSH USAID Management science for Health MSH
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Introduction:Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading morbidity and mortality, and the first presenting sign in majority of people living with Human Immune deficiency Virus (PLWH). Determinants of active TB among HIV patients on anti retroviral treatment (ART) are not well described in resource limited settings. The aim of this study was to assess determinant factors for the occurrence of TB among people living with HIV after ART initiation in public hospitals and health centers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.Methods and Findings:A case control study was conducted from December 2011 to February 2012 in 2 public hospitals and 13 health centers in Addis Ababa. The study population consisted of 204 cases and 409 controls. Cases were adult people living with HIV who developed TB after ART initiation and controls were adult people living with HIV who did not develop TB after ART initiation. An interviewer administered structured questionnaire was used to collect information.After adjustment for potential confounders, presence of isoniazid prophylaxis (adjusted odd ratio [AOR] 0.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.125, 0.69) and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis (AOR = 0.19; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.62) had protective benefit against risk of TB. In contrary, bedridden (AOR = 9.36; 95% CI: 3.39, 25.85), having World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage III/IV (AOR = 3.40; 95% CI: 1.69, 6.87) and hemoglobin level <10 mg/dl (AOR = 7.43; 95% CI; 3.04, 18.31) at enrollment to ART care were predictors for increased risk of tuberculosis in PLWH after ART initiation.Conclusion:Increasing coverage of isoniazid preventive therapy and cotrimoxazole preventive therapy reduced risk of TB among HIV patients who started treatment. All PLWH should be screened for TB, but for patients who have advanced disease condition (WHO clinical stage III/IV, being bedridden and having hemoglobin level <10 mg/dl) intensified screening is highly recommended during treatment follow up. © 2013 Kibret et al.

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