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Zhao L.,University of Sichuan | Li B.,University of Sichuan | Ran J.,University of Sichuan | Chai L.,University of Sichuan | And 2 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied and Environmental Biology | Year: 2014

Umbrella bamboo (Fargseia robusta), a staple bamboo for giant panda, was severely destroyed by secondary disasters (landslide, collapse, debris flow, etc.) following the Wenchuan Earthquake. This study aimed to investigate the shooting trends of the umbrella bamboo in three different levels of landslide disturbance (strong, moderate and control), to understand the regeneration dynamics of umbrella bamboo population, to determine the relationship between the biomass and shoot number and survival amount, and finally to make an assessment of the resilience of the umbrella bamboo after seismic landslide disturbance. Our study was conducted in the Longxi-Hongkou National Nature Reserve, Dujiangyan, Chengdu, China. A total of 150 permanent quadrats (2 m × 2 m) were set at 3 sites in different levels of landslide disturbance (strong, moderate, control) with 50 quadrats each. The newly generated bamboo shoots and degraded shoots were counted and labeled; the basal diameter (cm) and height (mm) of the annual shoot were measured by tape from the first new bamboo shoot in April until no new shoot. All the counts and measurements were repeated in October. Our results showed that: (1) the number of newly generated and surviving bamboo shoots as well as the biomass per unit area fluctuated in all disturbance levels from 2010 to 2012. (2) The shoot number showed a significantly positive correlation with survival amount; the shoot number and survival amount in disturbed sites were significantly higher than that in the control site; the survival rate of the bamboo shoot was the highest in the strong disturbance site. (3) The height and basal diameter of the regenerated bamboo tended to increase year by year in the strong disturbance site, but fluctuated in the moderate disturbance site. (4) The shoot number, survival amount, biomass per unit area and the clone rate in the moderate disturbance site were significantly higher than those in the control by 2012. Our results suggested that four years after seismic landslide disturbance, the umbrella bamboo has recovered to some degree, with the clone population recovery better in moderately disturbed places than the strongly disturbed ones. The recovery strategy of F. robusta is giving priority to energy supply for increase of bamboo numbers, then for vegetative growth.


Li B.,Sichuan University | Zhang M.,Sichuan University | Zhao L.,Sichuan University | Ran J.,Sichuan University | And 2 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied and Environmental Biology | Year: 2014

This paper aimed to understand and assess the recovery of the natural vegetation and to explore the influences of eco-factors on vegetation recovery on landslides formed by the Wenchuan earthquake. We sampled 127 quadrats (10 m × 10 m) on the landslides in Longxi-Hongkou Nature Reserve from August to September in 2012. All the tracheophyte species were recorded and the vegetation cover and height measured. A total of six ecological factors which might influence the vegetation recovery on landslides were measured, including the slope gradient, quadrat location on landslides, gravel cover, litter cover, remaining vegetation cover and the distance from quadrat to the nearest forest edge. The main results showed that four years after the formation of landslides, the natural regenerated vegetation covered more than 30% (highest 85%) in 62.99% of the quadrats. The average height of the shrub layer was equal to or greater than 1 meter in 60.63% of the quadrats, and there were five or more species in 84.25% of the quadrats. We recorded 75 plant species belonging to 67 genera in 38 families. Two families, Compositae and Rosaceae, with 13 and 7 species respectively, were pioneer species colonized on landslides. Among the 75 plant species, woody species accounted for 33.33%, including 6 tree species and 19 shrub species; herbs and vines accounted for 62.67% and 4.00% respectively. Vegetation on landslides was mainly shrubs of 10 formation types, with Rubus setchuenensis and R. tsangii the dominant species and principal cover on landslides. Logistic regression models showed that vegetation cover was significantly negatively affected by gravel cover (B < 0, P < 0.001) and quadrat location on landslides (5 < 0, P < 0.001) and positively influenced by distances from the nearest forest edge (B > 0, P < 0.05). The average vegetation height was likewise significantly negatively affected by gravel cover (5 < 0, P < 0.01) and positively influenced by distances from the nearest forest edge (B>0, P< 0.05). The number of plant species was significantly negatively affected by the slope (5 <0,P< 0.001) and gravel cover (B < 0, P < 0.01). Shrub cover was significantly negatively affected by slope gradients (B < 0, P < 0.001) and gravel cover (B < 0, P < 0.001), and significantly positively influenced by remaining vegetation cover (B>0,P < 0.05). These results suggested that vegetation on landslides could recover naturally with the dominant species, and that the characteristics of the local region had significant effect on the process of vegetation succession on landslides.


Liao L.,Sichuan University | Xu Y.,Sichuan University | Ran J.,Sichuan University | Zheng W.,Sichuan University | And 2 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2012

The umbrella bamboo (Fargesia robusta) is one of the staple bamboos for giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). The shoot growth and development of umbrella bamboo were investigated in the Sichuan Longxi-Hongkou National Nature Reserve from October 2009 to April 2011, and the effects of the Wenchuan Earthquake on the bamboos were evaluated as well. According to the damage degrees caused by the earthquake and its secondary geological disaster to umbrella bamboo population, the disturbances from the earthquake were classified into intense, moderate and slight types. Fifty plots were set in the population corresponded to each type, and a total of 150 plots were set in the reserve. The shooting time (Julian day) was significantly delayed in the plots with intense disturbance compared with that in the plots with moderate and slight disturbances, while the shooting time displayed no significant difference between the plots with moderate and slight disturbances. The shooting durations showed no difference among plots with three different types of earthquakes disturbance. The regeneration of umbrella bamboo was investigated based on quantity index of number of annual shoots and young bamboos. Numbers of annual shoots in the plots with intense and moderate disturbances were significantly higher than that in the plots with slight disturbance, while that between plots with intense and moderate disturbances showed no significant difference. Numbers of annual young bamboos in plots with intense disturbance was the highest, while that in the plots with moderate and slight disturbances were not significantly different. This showed that intense and moderate disturbances from the earthquake promoted the regeneration of umbrella bamboo through increasing the numbers of annual shoots and young bamboos. The regeneration of umbrella bamboo was investigated based on quality index of basal diameter and culm height as well. Basal diameter and culm height in the plots with intense disturbance were obviously smaller than that in the plots with moderate and slight disturbances. Basal diameter in the plots with moderate disturbance had no significant difference to that in the plots with slight disturbance, whereas culm height was significantly lower than that in the plots with slight disturbance. It indicated that quality of the umbrella bamboos in the plots with intense disturbance was the worst, and basal diameter in the plots with moderate disturbance had been basically restored, but culm height was still limited. The withered shoots in the plots with different levels of disturbances were attributed to external mechanical damage, animal feeding, growth stop and etc. In the present study, the rates of withered shoots due to external mechanical damage and growth stop in the plots with intense disturbance were significantly higher than that in the plots with moderate and slight disturbances. Moreover, the rates of withered shoots due to animal feeding in the plots with intense disturbance were significantly lower than that in other disturbance plots. It suggested that bamboo shoots in the plots with intense disturbance were much vulnerable to external mechanical damage and growth stop, however, that in the plots with moderate and slight disturbances were easy to die due to animal feeding. Shoot growth of umbrella bamboo after earthquake was adapted to the different degrees of disturbances in the natural reserve.


Zheng W.,Sichuan University | Ran J.,Sichuan University | Li B.,Sichuan University | Gu X.,Sichuan Wildlife Conservation Station | And 2 more authors.
Acta Theriologica Sinica | Year: 2012

The Wenchuan earthquake of May 12, 2008 occurred in the Minshan and Qionglai Mountains, where the most important habitats for giant pandas(Ailuropoda melanoleuca)occur. We took advantage of our long-term dataset on panda habitat use in Longxi-Hongkou and Tangjiahe Nature Reserves to investigate pandas' responses to this disaster. We analyzed the habitat use patterns of giant pandas over the course of a 7-year period (5 years pre-earthquake and 2 years post-earthquake) along fixed-width line transects. The results showed: (1) Before the earthquake, there were no significant differences in used/unused frequencies each year for each transect line, in other words, the habitat use patterns of giant pandas were stable before the earthquake. (2) During the 2 years after the earthquake, there were also no significant differences in used/unused frequencies each year for each transect line. (3) Panda habitat use patterns did not appear to be affected by the earthquake since in the 10 transects surveyed before and after the earthquake, the used/unused frequencies were not significantly different between the pre-and post-earthquake periods. (4)There was no relationship between giant panda habitat use and landslides in Longxi-Hongkou Nature Reserve. Our findings contribute to ongoing habitat restoration plans and long-term conservation of the giant panda.

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