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Bari Abarghouei H.,Payame Noor University | Kousari M.R.,Management Center for Strategic Projects | Asadi Zarch M.A.,University of Yazd
Arabian Journal of Geosciences

Drought is one of the most important natural hazards in Iran. It is especially more prevalent in arid and hyper arid regions where there are serious limitations in regard to providing sufficient water resources. On the other hand, drought modeling and particularly its prediction can play important role in water resources management under conditions of lack of sufficient water resources. Therefore, in this study, drought prediction in a hyper arid location of Iran (Ardakan region) has been surveyed based on the abilities of artificial neural. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) in different time scales (3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 monthly time series) computed based on the data gathered from four rain gauge stations. After evaluation and testing of different artificial neural networks (ANN) structures, gradient descent back propagation (traingd) network showed higher abilities than others. Then, the predictions of SPI time series with different monthly lag times (1:12 months) were tested. Generally, drought prediction by ANNs in the Ardakan region has shown considerable results with the correlation coefficient (R) more than 0. 79 and in the most cases and it rises more than 0. 90, which indicates the ANN's ability of drought prediction. © 2011 Saudi Society for Geosciences. Source

Kousari M.R.,University of Yazd | Kousari M.R.,Management Center for Strategic Projects | Dastorani M.T.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad | Niazi Y.,University of Yazd | And 3 more authors.
Water Resources Management

Drought is known as one of the main natural hazards especially in arid and semi-arid regions where there are considerable issues in regard to water resources management. Also, climate changes has been introduced as a global concern and therefore, under conditions of climate change and global warming, the investigation of drought severity trend in regions such as Iran which is mainly covered by arid and semi-arid climate conditions is in the primary of importance. Therefore, in this study, based on the application of Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) for assessment drought severities, and also the implementation of non-parametric Mann- Kendall statistics and Sen's slope estimator, the trends in different time series of RDI (3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 monthly time series) were investigated. Results indicated the frequent decreasing trends in RDI time series particularly for long term time series (12, 18 and 24 monthly time series) than short term ones. Decreasing trend in RDI time series means the increasing trend in drought severities. Since the water resources especially ground water in most cases are affected by long term droughts, therefore, increasing trend in drought intensities in long term ones can be a threat for water resources management in surveyed areas. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Bari Abarghouei H.,Payame Noor University | Asadi Zarch M.A.,University of Yazd | Dastorani M.T.,University of Yazd | Kousari M.R.,Management Center for Strategic Projects | Safari Zarch M.,Payame Noor University
Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment

Drought is one of the most important natural hazards in Iran. Therefore, drought monitoring has become a point of concern for most of the researchers. In the present study, the changes and trend of drought was surveyed, under the current global climate changes, by non parametric Mann-Kendall statistical test for 42 synoptic stations at different places of Iran. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) was calculated to recognize the drought condition at different time scales (3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months' time series) for analyzing the drought trend in the recent 30 years. The obtained results have indicated a significant negative trend of drought in many parts of Iran, especially the South-East, West and South-West regions of the country. According to the results, although some parts of Iran such as North (around the Caspian Sea) and Northeast show no significant trend but in other parts of country, the severity of drought has increased during the last 30 years. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

Ahani H.,Management Center for Strategic Projects | Kherad M.,Management Center for Strategic Projects | Kousari M.R.,Management Center for Strategic Projects | van Roosmalen L.,Flinders University | And 2 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Climatology

Currently, an important scientific challenge that researchers are facing is to gain a better understanding of climate change at the regional scale, which can be especially challenging in an area with low and highly variable precipitation amounts such as Iran. Trend analysis of the medium-term change using ground station observations of meteorological variables can enhance our knowledge of the dominant processes in an area and contribute to the analysis of future climate projections. Generally, studies focus on the long-term variability of temperature and precipitation and to a lesser extent on other important parameters such as moisture indices. In this study the recent 50-year trends (1955-2005) of precipitation (P), potential evapotranspiration (PET), and aridity index (AI) in monthly time scale were studied over 14 synoptic stations in three large Iran basins using the Mann-Kendall non-parametric test. Additionally, an analysis of the monthly, seasonal and annual trend of each parameter was performed. Results showed no significant trends in the monthly time series. However, PET showed significant, mostly decreasing trends, for the seasonal values, which resulted in a significant negative trend in annual PET at five stations. Significant negative trends in seasonal P values were only found at a number of stations in spring and summer and no station showed significant negative trends in annual P. Due to the varied positive and negative trends in annual P and to a lesser extent PET, almost as many stations with negative as positive trends in annual AI were found, indicating that both drying and wetting trends occurred in Iran. Overall, the northern part of the study area showed an increasing trend in annual AI which meant that the region became wetter, while the south showed decreasing trends in AI. © 2012 Springer-Verlag. Source

Zarch M.A.A.,University of Yazd | Malekinezhad H.,University of Yazd | Mobin M.H.,University of Yazd | Dastorani M.T.,University of Yazd | Kousari M.R.,Management Center for Strategic Projects
Water Resources Management

Drought is one of the most important natural hazards in Iran and frequently affects a large number of people, causing tremendous economic losses, environmental damages and social hardships. Especially, drought has a strong impact on water resources in Iran. This situation has made more considerations toward the study and management of drought. The present study is focused on two important indices; SPI and RDI, for 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months time scales in 40 meteorological synoptic stations in Iran. In the case of RDI computation, potential evapotranspiration was an important factor toward drought monitoring. So, evapotranspiration was calculated by Penman-Monteith equation. The correlation of RDI and SPI was also surveyed. Drought severity maps for SPI and RDI were also presented in the driest year (1999-2000). The present results have shown that the correlation of SPI and RDI was more considerable in the 3, 6 and 9 months than longer time scales. Furthermore, drought severity maps have shown that during 1999-2000, the central, eastern and south-eastern parts of Iran faced extremely dry conditions. While, according to SPI and RDI trends, other parts of the country suffered from severe drought. The SPI and RDI methods showed approximately similar results for the effect of drought on different regions of Iran. Since, RDI resolved more climatic parameters, such as evapotranspiration, into account which had an important role in water resource losses in the Iranian basins, it was worthwhile to consider RDI in drought monitoring in Iran, too. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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