Shah Alam, Malaysia

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Al-Naggar R.A.,Management and Science University | Bobryshev Y.V.,University of New South Wales
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2012

Background: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of shisha smoking and associated factors among medical students in Malaysia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Management and Science University from December 2011 until March 2012. The questionnaire consisted of five sections including socio-demographic, social environment, knowledge about shisha, psychosocial factors, and personal shisha smoking behavior. Obtained data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 13). T-test was used to determine the relationships between shisha smoking and socio-demographic characteristic. Results: A total number of 300 medical students participated in this study. Mean age was 22.5±2.5 years. The majority were female, Malay, single, from urban areas (67%, 54%, 97%, 73%; respectively). The prevalence of shisha smoking among medical students was found to be 20%. The study revealed that many students believed that shisha does not contains nicotine, carbon monoxide, does not lead to lung cancer, dental problems and does not lead to cardiovascular diseases (25%, 20.7%, 22.3%, 29%, 26.7%; respectively). Age and sex were found to be significantly associated with smoking shisha status among medical students (p=0.029, p<0.001; respectively). Furthermore, having parents, siblings and friends smokers of shisha were found to be significantly associated with shisha smoking status (p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001; respectively). Furthermore, family problems, problems with friends, financial problems and university life were found to significantly associated with shisha smoking status among medical students (p<0.001, p=0.002, p<0.001, p=0.002; respectively). Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of shisha smoking and a poor knowledge about its impact on health among medical students. More attention is needed to focus on medical education in this regard. The policies that are currently employed in order to reduce the cigarettes smoking should be applied to shisha smoking and shisha products.


Ganasegeran K.,Management and Science University | Renganathan P.,Tengku Ampuan Rahimah Hospital HTAR | Manaf R.A.,National University of Malaysia | Al-Dubai S.A.R.,International Medical University
BMJ Open | Year: 2014

Objective: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with anxiety and depression among type 2 diabetes outpatients in Malaysia. Design: Descriptive, cross-sectional single-centre study with universal sampling of all patients with type 2 diabetes. Setting: Endocrinology clinic of medical outpatient department in a Malaysian public hospital. Participants: All 169 patients with type 2 diabetes (men, n=99; women, n=70) aged between 18 and 90 years who acquired follow-up treatment from the endocrinology clinic in the month of September 2013. Main outcome measures: The validated Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), sociodemographic characteristics and clinical health information from patient records. Results: Of the total 169 patients surveyed, anxiety and depression were found in 53 (31.4%) and 68 (40.3%), respectively. In multivariate analysis, age, ethnicity and ischaemic heart disease were significantly associated with anxiety, while age, ethnicity and monthly household income were significantly associated with depression. Conclusions: Sociodemographics and clinical health factors were important correlates of anxiety and depression among patients with diabetes. Integrated psychological and medical care to boost self-determination and confidence in the management of diabetes would catalyse optimal health outcomes among patients with diabetes.


Shahbaz M.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Loganathan N.,Management and Science University | Zeshan M.,Pukyong National University | Zaman K.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2015

The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between renewable energy consumption and economic growth by incorporating capital and labour as potential determinants of production function in case of Pakistan. This study used auto-regressive distributed lag (ARDL) model and rolling window approach (RWA) for cointegration in context of Pakistan. The study used quarterly data over the period of 1972Q1-2011Q4. The causality analysis applied through VECM Granger causality and innovative accounting approaches. The results reveal that all the variables in the study are cointegrated that shows the long run relationship between the variables. Furthermore, renewable energy consumption, capital and labour boost economic growth. The causality analysis shows the feedback effect between economic growth and renewable energy consumption. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.


Ganasegeran K.,Management and Science University | Al-Dubai S.A.R.,International Medical University
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine | Year: 2014

Context: The practice of medicine requires good communication skills to foster excellent rapport in doctor patient relationship. Reports on communication skills learning attitude among medical professionals are key essentials toward improving patient safety and quality of care. Aims: We aimed to determine factors affecting communication skills learning attitudes among medical residents in Malaysia. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional survey, in a Malaysian public health hospital. Materials and Methods: A total of 191 medical residents across medical and surgical based rotations were included. We assessed the validated communication skills attitude scale among medical residents from different rotations. Statistical Analysis: Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS®) (version 16.0, IBM, Armonk, NY) was used. Cronbach's alpha was used to test the internal consistency of the scale. Descriptive analysis was conducted for all variables. Bivariate analysis was employed across the socio-demographic variables. Results: Majority of the residents believed that communication skills training should be made compulsory in Malaysia (78.5%). Medical residents agreed that acquiring good communication skills is essential to be a good doctor. However, the majority cited time pressures for not being able to learn communication skills. Significant differences in communication skills learning attitude scores were found between Malays and Chinese. Conclusion: The majority of medical residents had a positive attitude toward communication skills learning. Socio-demographic factors influenced communication skills learning attitude among medical residents. Incorporating communicative skills modules during hospital Continuous Medical Education for medical residents is essential to cultivate communicative skills attitudes for effective doctor-patient relationship during the routine medical encounters.


Kumar A.,Management and Science University
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease | Year: 2014

Objective: To evaluate paraoxonase activity, antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in hypertensive participants and to address the hypothesis that oxidative modifications of lipids due to hypertension can cause changes in serum paraoxonase activities. Methods: The serum paraoxonase activities, antioxidants and lipid peroxidation were determined in 130 hypertensive participants and 130 age-sexes matched normotensive healthy volunteers served as control. Serum paraoxonase activities were measured by enzymatic kit. The glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity were determined by standard methods. Malondialdehyde was measured by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Conjugated diene level was measured by Recknagel and Glende method. Serum uric acid, total bilirubin, serum albumin, serum ascorbic acid and lipid profile were analyzed by standard methods. Results: Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly higher and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly lower in hypertensive patients when compared to normotensive healthy controls. The superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase were significantly lower in hypertensive when compared with normotensive. Similar findings were observed in the levels of albumin, uric acid, bilirubin and ascorbic acid when hypertensives were compared with normotensive. The oxidative stress indicators namely malondialdehyde and conjugated diene were significantly higher and paraoxonase activity were significantly lower in hypertensive. Conclusions: Our study concludes that paraoxonase activities are bound to alter in hypertension which is caused due to interplay of several confounding factors namely oxidative stress, increased oxidized low-density lipoprotein and depletion of antioxidants. © 2014 Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press.


Kumar A.,Management and Science University
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease | Year: 2014

Objective: To study associated ischemia modified albumin in hypertensive participants and to compare the results with normotensive healthy controls. Methods: A total of 86 hypertensive patients and 86 age-sex matched normotensive healthy volunteers were selected for this study. The study was conducted for a period of 3 years from September 2007 to August 2010. Biochemical parameters and other parameters such as smoking habits, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and family history were recorded. Lipid profile, ischemia modified albumin, malondialdehyde and conjugated diene were measured by standard methods and results were compared between patients and controls. Results: Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly higher (P<0.001) in hypertensive subjects when compared to normotensive control. Also, significant differences were seen in high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels between both groups (P<0.001). The index of lipid per oxidation comprising both malondialdehyde and conjugated dienes were significantly higher in hypertensive compared to normotensive controls. Ischemia modified albumin levels were significantly increased among hypertensive compared to normotensive controls (P<0.001). Conclusions: Hypertensive patients have increased oxidative stress and are accompanied with rise in ischemia modified albumin. Ischemia modified albumin could be incorporated as a diagnostic test parameter in hypertensive to avoid the future acute coronary complications. © 2014 Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press.


Subramanian R.,Management and Science University | Asmawi M.Z.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Sadikun A.,Universiti Sains Malaysia
Phytochemistry Reviews | Year: 2012

Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f) Nees is one of the most popular and important medicinal plant of the Orient, and South East Asia. It finds mention in various forms in Indian, Chinese, Malay, Thai, Unani, and Japanese systems of medicine. The plant exhibits anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, antihypertensive, anti-venom, cholestatic, hepatoprotective, anti-thrombotic, anti-retroviral, anti-microbial, anti-pyretic, anti-malarial, anti-oxidant, immunomodulatory, and cardioprotective effects. The major active principles contributing to biological activity are diterpene lactones, but flavonoids, xanthones and caffeic acid derivatives also contribute to anti-oxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-atherosclerotic, and anti-malarial effects. As a result of its wide spectrum of pharmacological activity, almost impeccable safety profile, being a widely cultivated medicinal plant, we have collected and compiled various facets of this plant. Extensive datamining of the phytochemistry and pharmacology of Andrographis paniculata revealed more than 50 diterpene lactones, 30 flavonoids, 8 quinic acid derivatives, and 4 xanthones. This review contains information on around 80 isolated compounds, out of which more than half of the compounds have no reported pharmacological activity. Though there are some good reviews available on Andrographis paniculata, the authors of the earlier reviews focused on one or two aspects of the plant and none have attempted to integrate the available information on this plant. This provided us the much needed impetus, warranting a full-fledged and complete review on Andrographis paniculata, one of the most popular and important Oriental medicinal plant. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.


Objective: To address the association of dietary vitamins, anthropometric profile, lipid profile, antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in hypertensive participant compared with normotensive healthy controls. Methods: Dietary intake of vitamins was assessed by 131 food frequency questionnaire items in both hypertensive participants and normotensive age-sex matched healthy controls. The associated changes in serum antioxidants and lipid peroxidation were also assessed along with lipid profile and anthropometric measurements in both groups of subjects under study. Results: Dietary vitamins intake was higher in hypertensive participants excepting for vitamin B2 and ascorbic acid compared to normotensive controls. Anthropometric variables in the hypertensive showed significant differences in weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-hip ratio and mid-arm circumference. The total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in hypertensive except high-density lipoprotein cholesterol which was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in normotensive. The serum endogenous antioxidants and enzyme antioxidants were significantly decreased in hypertensive except serum albumin levels compared to normotensive along with concomitant increase in serum lipoprotein (a) malondialdehyde and conjugated diene levels. Conclusions: Based on the observations, our study concludes that hypertension is caused due to interplay of several confounding factors namely anthropometry, lipid profile, depletion of endogenous antioxidants and rise in oxidative stress. © 2014 by the Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine.


Al-Naggar R.A.,Management and Science University | Bobryshev Y.V.,University of New South Wales
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2011

Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the practice of HPV vaccine among Malaysian women in the general population. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 233 women during the Academic Year 2010/2011. Written consent was obtained from the participants and written information about the study was given enclosed with the questionnaire form. The questionnaire consisted of Socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge about HPV and practice of HPV vaccine. The protocol of this study was approved by the ethics committee of Management and Science University (MSU). Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 13. T-test and ANOVA test were used to explore the relation between socio-demographic characteristics and the practice of HPV vaccine. Results: A total number of 233 women participated in this study. Majority of the participants were from the age group 17-30 years old, Malay, single and having tertiary education (67.8%, 62.7, 62.2, 86.3%; respectively). As for the knowledge of participants, the majority of them heard about HPV (82.4%), knew that the multiple sex partners increase the risk of HPV (71.7%). Regarding the practice of HPV vaccine among respondents, slightly more than have of them have been vaccinated (51.5%). Regarding the factors that influenced the practice of HPV vaccine among general population; age, marital status and family monthly income were significantly influence the practice of HPV vaccine (p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001; respectively). Conclusion: Slightly more than have of the participants have been vaccinated. Age, marital status and income significantly influence the practice of HPV vaccine. Therefore promotion of HPV vaccine and include HPV vaccine in the national vaccination program is very important as a primary prevention from cervical cancer among women.


Al-Naggar R.A.,Management and Science University | Saghir F.S.A.,Management and Science University
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2011

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of waterpipe (shisha) smoking and associated factors among Malaysian university students. Methodology: A total of 200 university students from Management and Science University participated in this study. The survey was conducted by simple random sampling by randomly distributing self-administered questionnaires to the library, cafeterias and classes. The protocol of this study was approved by the ethics committee of Management and Science University. Consent forms were obtained from the students before they answered the questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 13. with the Student's t-test for comparison of the mean practice and backward multiple linear regression for multivariate analysis. Results: The majority of the subjects were male, single, Malay and from urban areas (61.5%, 94.5%, 66%, 76.5%; respectively). In this study 30% of the study participants were shisha smokers. Regarding knowledge about shisha smoking, the majority (48.5%) mentioned that shisha is less harmful than cigarettes and 55% reported that shisha is less addictive. Univariate analysis showed that age, race, sex and income significantly influenced the practice of smoking shisha among university students (p=0.019, p=0.002, p=0.001, p=0.018; respectively). For multivariate analysis, income and gender demonstated significant influence (both p=0.001). Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of shisha smoking among Malaysian university students and knowledge about the dangers is low. Income and gender significantly influenced the practice of smoking shisha in our population. Banning of smoking including shisha smoking in public places is strongly recommended.

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