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Ciannelli L.,Oregon State University | Bailey K.,Man and Sea Institute LLC | Olsen E.M.,Norwegian Institute of Marine Research | Olsen E.M.,University of Agder
ICES Journal of Marine Science | Year: 2014

For marine fish, the choice of the spawning location may be the only means to fulfil the dual needs of surviving from the egg to juvenile stage and dispersing across different habitats while minimizing predation and maximizing food intake. In this article, we review the factors that affect the choice of fish spawning habitats and propose a framework to distinguish between ecological and evolutionary constraints. We define the former as the boundaries for phenotypically plastic responses to environmental change, in this case the ability of specific genotypes to change their spawning habitat. Processes such as predation, starvation, or aberrant dispersal typically limit the amount of variability in spawning habitat that fish may undergo from 1 year to the next, and thus regulate the intensity of ecological constraints. Evolutionary constraints, on the other hand, refer to aspects of the genetic make-up that limit the rate and direction of adaptive genetic changes in a population across generations; that is, the potential for micro-evolutionary change. Thus, their intensity is inversely related to the level of genetic diversity associated with traits that regulate spawning and developmental phases. We argue that fisheries oceanographers are well aware of, and more deeply focused on, the former set of constraints, while evolutionary biologists are more deeply focused on the latter set of constraints. Our proposed framework merges these two viewpoints and provides new insight to study fish habitat selection and adaptability to environmental changes. © 2014 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.

Ciannelli L.,Oregon State University | Hunsicker M.,National Center for Ecological Analysis And Synthesis | Beaudreau A.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Bailey K.,Man and Sea Institute LLC | And 11 more authors.
ICES Journal of Marine Science | Year: 2014

In this article we consider the current educational needs for science and policy in marine resource management, and we propose a way to address them. The existing literature on cross-disciplinary education in response to pressing environmental problems is vast, particularly in conservation biology. However, actual changes in doctoral-level marine science programs lag behind this literature considerably. This is in part because of concerns about the time investment in cross-disciplinary education and about the job prospects offered by such programs. There is also a more fundamental divide between educational programs that focus on knowledge generation and those that focus on professional development, which can reinforce the gap in communication between scientists and marine resource managers. Ultimately, transdisciplinary graduate education programs need not only to bridge the divide between disciplines, but also between types of knowledge. Our proposed curriculum aligns well with these needs because it does not sacrifice depth for breadth, and it emphasizes collaboration and communication among diverse groups of students, in addition to development of their individual knowledge and skills. © 2014 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. All rights reserved.

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