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PubMed | Banaras Hindu University, Maulana Azad Institute of Dental science, Kyungpook National University and MAMC Associated Lok Nayak Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecular syndromology | Year: 2015

We report an unusual combination of features comprising delayed tooth eruption and closure of the anterior fontanel as the sole presenting features in a child with cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD). Radiological survey revealed the presence of wormian bones in the skull, pseudoepiphysis at the base of the bilateral second metacarpal, and midline ossification defects at pubic symphysis in the presence of essentially normal clavicles. DNA sequencing of the RUNX2 gene detected a novel nonsense mutation in exon1 (c.166C>T; p.Q56X) in its glutamine-alanine (Q/A) repeat domain. The genotypes of all published cases of CCD with normal clavicles were reviewed. Additional dental and otolaryngological features were enlisted. Three cases with a milder dental phenotype and normal clavicles were associated with a mutation in the Q/A domain. Collectively, we found a novel CCD-causing nonsense mutation p.Q56X in the Q/A domain of the RUNX2 gene.


Singh A.,Banaras Hindu University | Kim O.-H.,Woorisoa Childrens Hospital | Iida A.,RIKEN | Park W.-Y.,Samsung | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Medical Genetics | Year: 2015

Desbuquois dysplasia (DBQD) is a rare skeletal dysplasia characterized by severe short stature, laxity, dislocation of multiple joints and developmental delay. DBQD is clinically heterogeneous. Distinct radiographic hand abnormalities such as the presence of extra-ossification distal to the second metacarpal or normal hand has led to its classification into types 1 and 2. Furthermore, the third type of DBQD, Kim type has been reported which is characterized by short metacarpals and elongated phalanges. However, DBQD Kim type has been exclusively reported in Japanese and Korean and its clinical characteristics remain to be delineated. Mutations in the calcium-activated nucleotidase 1 (. CANT1) gene have been reported in all three types of DBQD. Previously reported patients with DBQD Kim type had a common mutation c.676G>A (p.Val226Met), which had a common founder between Japanese and Korean. Here, we report 3 Indian patients with DBQD, Kim type from 2 families which were unrelated to each other. We identified a novel mutation of CANT1, c.467C>T (p.Ser156Phe), in all the patients in the homozygous form. Our results show that DBQD Kim type is not exclusive to East Asians and also report a novel mutation from the Indian subcontinent. © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS.


Singh A.,MAMC & Associated Lok Nayak Hospital | Tekin M.,University of Miami | Falcone M.,University of Miami | Kapoor S.,MAMC & Associated Lok Nayak Hospital
Indian Pediatrics | Year: 2014

Background: Labyrinthine Aplasia, Microtia and Microdontia (LAMM) syndrome is characterized by the complete absence of inner ear structures (Michel aplasia), microtia and microdontia. Hypophosphatemic rickets results from defects in the renal tubular reabsorption of filtered phosphate.Case characteristics: 13-year-old Indian girl presented with deafness since infancy and progressive wrist widening and genu valgum for last one year.Observation: Homozygous novel missense mutation in fibroblast growth factor 3.Message: LAMM syndrome and hypophosphatemic rickets may be associated. © 2014, Indian Academy of Pediatrics.


PubMed | Research Associate and MAMC & Associated Lok Nayak Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR | Year: 2016

Chromosomal abnormalities are the results of alterations in the number or structure of chromosomes causing significant human morbidity and mortality. They are responsible for a large proportion of miscarriages, developmental delay, disorders of sexual development, congenital malformations and mental retardation.The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of different chromosomal abnormalities in North Indian patients referred for cytogenetic analysis.Total of 859 patients ranging from newborn to 37 years of age were referred to the division of genetics, Department of Paediatrics between 2010 and 2015, with a variety of clinical disorders; Down syndrome (DS), Turners syndrome (TS) and Klinefelter syndrome; amenorrhea; ambiguous sex and multiple congenital malformations. Chromosomal analysis was performed on lymphocyte culture according to standard methods.Of the 859 cases studied, 371 (43.1%) had chromosomal abnormalities. The most common autosomal abnormalities were DS 302 (81.4%) and sex chromosomal abnormalities were TS 51 (13.7%). Numerical abnormalities were accounted for 353 (41.0%) and structural abnormalities 18 (2.0%), respectively. Various other chromosomal anomalies were also reported.We have reviewed the incidence and distribution of chromosomal abnormalities and found higher rate of chromosomal abnormalities 43.1% in the referred cases. Our data suggest that chromosomal analysis is important tool in the evaluation of genetic disorders and helps clinicians to provide accurate diagnosis and proper genetic counselling.


PubMed | MAMC Associated Lok Nayak Hospital
Type: Case Reports | Journal: Journal of child neurology | Year: 2014

Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia type I is a heterogeneous group of spinocerebellar ataxias with variable neurologic presentations, with age of onset varying from infancy to adulthood. Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia type I is composed mainly of 3 prevalent spinocerebellar ataxia types with different pathogenic loci, specifically spinocerebellar ataxia 1 (6p24-p23), spinocerebellar ataxia 2 (12q24.1), and spinocerebellar ataxia 3 (14q32.1). The shared pathogenic mutational event is the expansion of the CAG repeat that results in polyglutamine extended stretches in the encoded proteins. CAG repeat disorders generally show the phenomenon of anticipation, which is more often associated with paternal transmission. In this report, we describe a patient with infantile-onset spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (~320 CAG repeat) who inherited the disease from his father (47 CAG repeats). We have summarized the clinical, neuroimaging, electroencephalographic (EEG), and molecular data of previous cases and attempt to highlight the most consistent findings. Our intent is to help treating clinicians to suspect this disorder and to offer timely genetic counseling for a currently potentially untreatable disorder.


PubMed | Banaras Hindu University, Human Genome Research Institutes and MAMC Associated Lok Nayak Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of dermatology | Year: 2016

Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS; OMIM no. 214500) is an inherited multisystem disorder presenting with hypopigmentation and a propensity to infections due to immunological dysfunction. CHS generally presents in infancy with a fatal outcome, but less severe cases can present in adulthood. Treatment with bone marrow transplantation can be life-saving, so establishing a correct diagnosis is critical. The presence of large granules on examination of peripheral blood smears is suggestive of the diagnosis of CHS in most centers. However, sequencing of the lysosomal trafficking, LYST, gene confirms the diagnosis and can provide a prognosis regarding disease severity. In the case presented here, we performed molecular testing to identify the causative mutation and tabulated published mutation data from 2009 to 2014. We found a novel frameshift mutation in our case and concluded that frameshift and nonsense are the most common types of mutation in CHS, but this may be biased due to underdiagnosis of the milder and atypical forms of the disease.


PubMed | MAMC Associated Lok Nayak Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR | Year: 2013

Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome (SSS) is an autosomal recessive condition which is characterized by short stature, a carpotarsal coalition and a vertebral fusion, but without any rib anomaly. We are presenting a 7- year- old boy, who had uroliathiasis with the spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome. This association, to the best of our knowledge, has not been reported so far.


PubMed | Andhra Medical College, PhD Student, MAMC & Associated Lok Nayak Hospital and Andhra University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR | Year: 2014

Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a pro inflammatory cytokine which plays a key role in the acute and chronic inflammatory phases of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). The Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of IL-18 gene promoter region at positions -137 and -607, are postulated to be associated with RA. To test this, this study aimed to identify the association between these SNPs of the IL-18 gene promoter region of RA in south Indian patients.This study was carried on 190 subjects among which 90 were RA patients and 100 were age and sex matched controls. Genomic DNA was extracted by Salting out method. IL 18 gene promotor region SNPs, IL 18 - 607 and IL 18 -137 were amplified by using sequence specific primers. The amplified products of different samples were separated by using a 1.5% agarose gel, stained with ethidium bromide and photographed. All statistical analyses were carried out by using SYSTAT 12 software.At position 607, the frequencies of C allele, CC genotype, A allele and AA genotype were found to be significantly higher in patients and controls respectively and there was no significant difference in CA genotype. At position 137, there was no significant difference between the two groups with regard to G and C allelles but there was a significant increase in GG genotype of patients and CC genotype of controls. There was no association between duration of morning stiffness, rheumatoid factor positivity or negativity, age of onset and gender with distribution of genotypes and alleles.C allele, CC genotype at position-607 and GG genotype at position-137 are risk factors and A allele, AA genotype at position-607 and CC genotype at position-137 have protective effect for RA.


PubMed | MAMC Associated Lok Nayak Hospital, Banaras Hindu University, Woorisoa Childrens Hospital, RIKEN and Samsung
Type: Case Reports | Journal: European journal of medical genetics | Year: 2015

Desbuquois dysplasia (DBQD) is a rare skeletal dysplasia characterized by severe short stature, laxity, dislocation of multiple joints and developmental delay. DBQD is clinically heterogeneous. Distinct radiographic hand abnormalities such as the presence of extra-ossification distal to the second metacarpal or normal hand has led to its classification into types 1 and 2. Furthermore, the third type of DBQD, Kim type has been reported which is characterized by short metacarpals and elongated phalanges. However, DBQD Kim type has been exclusively reported in Japanese and Korean and its clinical characteristics remain to be delineated. Mutations in the calcium-activated nucleotidase 1 (CANT1) gene have been reported in all three types of DBQD. Previously reported patients with DBQD Kim type had a common mutation c.676G>A (p.Val226Met), which had a common founder between Japanese and Korean. Here, we report 3 Indian patients with DBQD, Kim type from 2 families which were unrelated to each other. We identified a novel mutation of CANT1, c.467C>T (p.Ser156Phe), in all the patients in the homozygous form. Our results show that DBQD Kim type is not exclusive to East Asians and also report a novel mutation from the Indian subcontinent.


PubMed | Washington University in St. Louis and MAMC Associated Lok Nayak Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Indian journal of clinical biochemistry : IJCB | Year: 2015

Human urine gives evidence of the metabolism in the body and contains numerous organic acids and other compounds at a variety of concentration. The concentration of organic acids in urine varies from population to population due to genotype, food habits and other epigenetic and environmental influences. Knowledge of the reference values for urinary organic acids in a healthy pediatric population is very important for critical evaluation. This study was designed to quantify 16 organic acids in a healthy north Indian pediatric population. Early morning urine samples from healthy pediatric subjects of age 1day to 16years who did not have symptoms of any disease were analyzed for organic acid content. The children were not on any supplemental vitamins or drugs and were on a free and unrestricted diet. The creatinine concentration of each sample was determined before organic acid analysis. Organic acids were extracted from urine with ethyl acetate, extracted residue was air dried, converted into trimethylsilyl derivatives and analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Here we reported the age wise mean values and standard deviations for each compound, adjusted for creatinine content (mmol/mol of creatinine). We found the concentration of most of the metabolites are higher in our population in comparison to other populations. Such data may help to provide a basis for diagnosing metabolic abnormalities in patients in a specific ethnicity.

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