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Das S.S.,MAMC | Mishra S.,MAMC | Kaul J.M.,BSA
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2017

Introduction: The parafollicular cells or C (clear) cells in man are part of neuroendocrine system under Amine Precursor Uptake and Decarboxylation (APUD) cells. Their role in adults has been reputable but in fetus is still unclear. Aim: The present study was a baseline study endeavoring to describe the chronological development of the parafollicular cells with particular focus on its correlation with developing human thyroid follicles. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 10 aborted fetuses (14-28 weeks), procured from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi. Serial sections of fetal thyroid gland were generated, stained with haematoxylin and eosin, and immunohistochemistry using the anticalcitonin antibody and examined qualitatively. Results: In our study, the parafollicular cells were seen as earlier as by 14th week. They became morphologically and functionally mature by 16th week of gestation. The parafollicular cells were getting organized from scattering to parafollicular location then to a more localized area, i.e., intrafollicular along with the follicular development. As the follicles were enlarging, the intrafollicularly located parafollicular cells which was initially present in groups was getting displaced singly between the follicular cells in the same follicle. Conclusion: The sequential development pattern of the parafollicular cells in relation to developing thyroid follicles was established. This immunohistochemical study also concluded that the parafollicular cells might have higher character to play in the early gestational age such as regulation of ossification in the human fetus. © 2017, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All rights reserved.

Pangtey B.,MAMC | Kaul J.M.,BSA | Mishra S.,MAMC
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2017

Introduction: The histological and developmental knowledge of musculature of stomach wall is vital for the assessment and management of various associated congenital abnormalities like hypertrophy of pyloric musculature and pathologies of nerve terminals and ganglia. Aim: To study the development of muscularis mucosa and muscularis externa in human foetal stomach. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 22 aborted human foetuses of varying gestational ages ranging from 10-26 weeks. The foetuses were procured after obtaining Institutional Ethical Clearance and informed consent of parents of the aborted foetuses. Stomach was dissected and immersed fixed in 10% formalin and then sectioned and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin and Masson's Trichrome. Results: The muscularis mucosa appeared as a thin layer of smooth muscle strands at 14 weeks of gestation and later developed as a continuous and well developed layer by 22 weeks. Muscularis externa was composed of only two layers in early gestational ages from 10-15 weeks with predominant circular and discrete outer longitudinal muscle coat. The innermost layer of oblique muscle developed later at 16 weeks of gestation. Conclusion: The gastric muscularis mucosa and muscularis externa developed and differentiated sequentially in the human foetuses. The musculature in pyloric region of stomach was more developed and thick than the body and fundus of stomach in all foetuses at all gestational ages. © 2017, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All rights reserved.

PubMed | MAMC, All India Institute of Medical Sciences and DDU Hospital
Type: | Journal: Journal of forensic sciences | Year: 2016

In an air-conditioning system, the compressor is a large electric pump that pressurizes the refrigerant gas as part of the process of turning it back into a liquid. The explosion of an air conditioner (AC) compressor is an uncommon event, and immediate death resulted from the blast effect is not reported in forensic literature. We report three such cases in which young AC mechanics were killed on the spot due to compressor blast, while repairing the domestic split AC unit. The autopsy findings, the circumstances leading to the explosion of the compressor, are discussed in this study.

Sethi P.,Dr S N Medical College | Mohammed S.,Dr S N Medical College | Bhatia P.K.,Dr S N Medical College | Bhatia P.K.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia | Year: 2014

Background: Traditionally, midazolam has been used for providing conscious sedation in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Recently, dexmedetomidine has been tried, but very little evidence exists to support its use. Objective: The primary objective was to compare haemodynamic, respiratory and recovery profile of both drugs. Secondary objective was to compare the degree of comfort experienced by patients and the usefulness of the drug to endoscopist. Study Design: Open-label Randomised Controlled Trial. Methods: Subjects between 18 and 60 years of age with American Society of Anaesthesiologist Grade I-II requiring ERCP were enrolled in two groups (30 each). Both groups received fentanyl 1 μg/kg IV at the beginning of ERCP. Group M received IV midazolam (0.04 mg/kg) and additional 0.5 mg doses until Ramsay Sedation Scale (RSS) score reached 3-4. Group D received dexmedetomidine at loading dose of 1 μg/kg over 10 min followed by 0.5 μg/kg/h infusion until RSS reached 3-4. The vital parameters (heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), respiration rate, SpO2), time to achieve RSS 3-4 and facial pain score (FPS) were compared during and after the procedure. In the recovery room, time to reach modified Aldrete score (MAS) 9-10 and patient and surgeon's satisfaction scores was also recorded and compared. Any complication during or after the procedure were also noted. Results: In Group D, patients had lower HR and FPS at 5, 10 and 15 min following the initiation of sedation (P<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in BP and respiratory rate. The procedure elicited a gag response in 29 (97%) and 7 (23%) subjects in Group M and Group D respectively (P<0.05). MAS of 9-10 at 5 min during recovery was achieved in 27 (90%) subjects in Group D in contrast to 5 (17%) in Group M (P<0.05). Dexmedetomidine showed higher patient and surgeon satisfaction scores (P<0.05). Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine can be a superior alternative to midazolam for conscious sedation in ERCP.

Sharma H.,Institute of Medical science | Khare G.N.,Institute of Medical science | Singh S.,Institute of Medical science | Ramaswamy A.G.,SMIMS | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Orthopaedic Science | Year: 2014

Objectives: Management of AO type B and C fractures of the distal radius is controversial. This study compares outcomes and complications of AO type B and C fractures of the distal radius treated with volar locked plating and nonoperative methods. Materials and methods: Sixty-four patients with fractures of the distal radius (AO type B and C) were included in this study, according to inclusion criteria, and were allocated to the volar plating group or nonoperative group by alternate randomization: 32 patients with odd numbers went into the nonoperative group and the other 32 with even numbers went into the volar plating group. Patients in the nonoperative group were managed with closed reduction of the fracture and plaster cast application under an image intensifier. Those in the volar plating group were managed by open reduction and fixation with a volar locked plate. Preoperative and postoperative serial clinico-radiological follow-up was done. The range of movement, grip strength, functional outcome scores and radiological parameters were compared. Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis with significance at p < 0.05. Results: Range of movement and functional scores were significantly (p < 0.001) better in the volar plating group, but the difference in ulnar variance and radial and ulnar deviation was insignificant as compared to the nonoperative group. At 24 months follow-up, the nonoperative group had significantly more cases with malunion, articular incongruity and osteoarthritis. Conclusion: In cases of AO type B or C fractures of the distal radius, volar locked plating provides anatomical stable fixation and early mobilization with better clinico-radiological outcome as compared to conservative treatment. © 2014 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association.

Ghalaut V.S.,Pt. B.D.Sharma PGIMS | Sangwan L.,Pt. B.D.Sharma PGIMS | Dahiya K.,Pt. B.D.Sharma PGIMS | Ghalaut P.S.,Pt. B.D.Sharma PGIMS | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice | Year: 2012

Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in different stages of malignancies. Increased levels of NO have been reported in different leukemias. Imatinib is the preferred drug for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Turmeric powder contains curcumin which has anti-leukemic property and also decreases NO synthesis. This study was conducted on fifty patients of CML divided into two groups, group A receiving imatinib alone and group B receiving turmeric powder along with imatinib for six weeks. Nitric oxide levels were estimated in these patients before and after receiving therapy and were analyzed statistically. Nitric oxide levels were found to be significantly decreased in both the groups, but more significantly in group B after receiving the respective treatments. Thus, curcumin acts as an adjuvant to imatinib in decreasing the NO levels and may help in the treatment of CML patients. © The Author(s) 2011.

Goyal V.,Ggs Medical College | Goyal P.K.,M.A.M.C. | Gupta M.,Ggs Medical College
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2014

A trichobezoar is a mass of culminated hair within the gastrointestinal tract. Stomach is the common site of occurrence. Intestinal obstruction due to primary trichobezoar is extremely rare. Only few cases have been reported so far. We also present a case of 13-year-old girl having primary ileal trichobezoar causing intestinal obstruction.

Bhawna S.,Hemwati Nandan Bahuguna Garhwal University | Bharti A.,MAMC | Yogesh K.,Hemwati Nandan Bahuguna Garhwal University | Reena A.,Swami Dayanand Hospital
Iranian Journal of Pathology | Year: 2013

Background& Objectives: In spite of intensive worldwide efforts to reduce its transmission, malaria remains the most serious and widespread protozoal infection of humans. This study has been performed to evaluate various hematological alterations in patients infected with malaria and to add more detailed information, especially from these highly affected zones. Materials and Methods: A two-year, hospital-based study was conducted and hematologic profiles of 200 persons infected with malaria (Plasmodium vivax or P. falciparum) infection were examined and the results were compared with standard normal values. Results: One-hundred-ninety-six patients were infected with P. vivax, three with P. falciparum, and one with both. Patients with parasitemia tended to have significantly lower platelets, hemoglobin, white blood cell and red blood cell counts, blood indices and hematocrit than normal. Thrombocytopenia is identified as a key indicator of malaria in these febrile patients. Conclusion: Anemia and thrombocytopenia are the classical changes. Changes in the white blood cells are less dramatic, may vary due to variable size and type of cases, variability of the species, and geographical differences.

Behera C.,MAMC
Journal of Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine | Year: 2012

A 42 year old male, was found hanging by a plastic rope in his unbolted bed room. The rope was found attached to two suspension points (one end attached to the window panel and the other side to the ceiling knob) and the middle part of it used for the binding of neck. There was no knot present in the ligature as the right hand was found holding the ligature loop for the purpose of constriction of neck. A towel was found covering the head and underneath the ligature material on the neck used for padding. Blood stain was present on the floor below the suspended body which oozed out from the haemorrhoids. He was holding the cloth, wore in lower half of the body up to the mid thigh label, which appreciated by the authors as cadaveric spasm that developed in his flexor muscles of left hand. Detailed autopsy, crime scene examination and police investigation supported the manner of death as suicidal.

Saraf S.K.,Banaras Hindu University | Kumaraswamy V.,MAMC
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics | Year: 2013

In vivo studies using the animals are helpful in developing the treatment strategies as they are important link between the successful in vitro testing and safe human use. Various research projects in the field of fixation of fractures, development of newer biomaterials, chemotherapeutic drugs, use of stem cells in nonunion of fractures and cartilage defects etc., have hugely depended on animal experimentation. The employment of animals in experiments is both scientific and ethical issue. There must be reasonable reasons to show that it will significantly advance the present knowledge and lead to improvement in care. The regulatory bodies exist for humane use and care of animals used for experiments e.g., International Council for Laboratory Animal Science, Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences, International Union of Biological Sciences, International Committee on Laboratory Animals. In India, Indian National Science Academy, Indian Council of Medical Research, National Centre for Laboratory Animal Sciences promote high standards of laboratory animal quality, care and health. The Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision on Experiments on Animals guidelines are well defined and is a must read document for any one interested to carry out research with animal facilities.

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