Samborski S.M.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences |
Gozdowski D.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences |
Walsh O.S.,University of Idaho |
Lamb D.W.,University of New England of Australia |
And 3 more authors.
Agronomy Journal | Year: 2015
Active optical sensors (AOSs) measure crop reflectance at specific wavelengths and calculate vegetation indices (VIs) that are used to prescribe variable N fertilization. Visual observations of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plant greenness and density suggest that VI values may be genotype specific. Some sensor systems use correction coefficients to eliminate the effect of genotype on VI values. This study was conducted to assess the effects of winter wheat cultivars and growing conditions on canopy reflectance, as measured by red or amber normalized difference vegetative indices (NDVIs) derived from AOSs. Variations in NDVI values among three wheat cultivars were measured at three growth stages (Zadoks 31, 37, and 65) during 3 yr at three sites in Poland. GreenSeeker Model 505 and Crop Circle ACS-210 sensors were utilized to measure red and amber NDVIs, respectively. Significant (p < 0.05) differences in both forms of NDVI associated with wheat genotypes were observed across years and sites at Zadoks 31, the time when canopy sensing and N fertilization decisions are oft en made. Lack of a genotype × site interaction for both red and amber NDVIs and the presence of a significant genotype × year interaction for both VIs suggested that (i) canopy greenness and density of the same genotype measured at the same growth stage are likely to be stable across different growing conditions, and (ii) NDVI values for a particular genotype tend to vary more across years than across sites. Because developing temporally variable correction coefficients is not practical, we strongly recommend that an in situ calibration (based on in-field or a virtual reference strip) is utilized to normalize NDVI across genotypes, years, and sites. © 2015 by the American Society of Agronomy 5585 Guilford Road, Madison, WI 53711 USA All rights reserved.
Rozbicki J.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences |
Ceglinska A.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences |
Gozdowski D.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences |
Jakubczak M.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences |
And 7 more authors.
Journal of Cereal Science | Year: 2015
The genotype, environment and their interaction play an important role in the grain yielding and grain quality attributes. The main aim of this study was to determine the contributions of the genotype, environment and their interaction to the variation in bread-making traits. The data that were used for the analyses performed in this study were obtained from 3 locations in Poland from post-registration multi-environment trials with winter wheat in 2009 and 2010. The experimental factors were the cultivar (7 cultivars) and the crop management level (low input and high input). In the multi-environment trials, 17 traits were investigated that characterize grain, flour and dough quality. Most of the traits were affected much more strongly by environmental factors (i.e., year and location) than by genotype. The variance components revealed an especially strong effect of the year on the baking score, loaf volume and water absorption, as well a strong effect of the location on dough development and protein content. The obtained results demonstrate that the grain quality as measured by the parameters based on the protein content and quality may be substantially improved by crop management practices, especially by N fertilization level. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Paczos-grzeda E.,Lublin University of Life Sciences |
Bednarek P.T.,Polish Institute of Plant Breeding and Acclimatization |
Koroluk A.,Lublin University of Life Sciences |
Nita Z.,Strzelce Plant Breeding Company |
And 8 more authors.
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca | Year: 2014
Naked oat refers to a variety of Avena sativa with lemma and palea separating from the grains. Its spikelets are multiflorous and morphologically different from the husked oat. Problems with preharvest sprouting, threshability, rancidity, a wide range of kernel sizes, as well as its relatively low tolerance to limited soil water content, are its main drawbacks. Nevertheless it could be an alternative to a conventional oat. Unfortunately, its genetic variation is still poorly recognized. In the given study a set of 26 naked oat cultivars and lines were analyzed with 25 inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) primers that amplified as many as 429 DNA fragments among which 204 were polymorphic. The average number of markers amplified per primer pair and polymorphism information content (PIC) value equaled to eight and 0.23, respectively. Forty four unique PCR products were identified for different genotypes. While Unweighted Pair-Group Method with Arithmetic Mean failed to distinguish the materials into main clusters it demonstrated that cultivars 'Akt', 'Polar', 'Cacko', 'Siwek', 'Nagus' and most of the DC lines were within a single group. Moreover, the cultivars that were closely related based on their breeding pedigree (related to 'Akt') were close to each other. Principal Coordinate Analysis explained 54.1% of variance and was in good agreement with the UPGMA. ISSR markers could be used for the evaluation of genetic similarity of cultivars and lines as well as the differentiation of individual genotypes. This study demonstrated that the available A. sativa naked type genetic pool is relatively wide and have the potential for further breeding progress.