Nygaard I.,Technical University of Denmark |
Rasmussen K.,Copenhagen University |
Badger J.,Technical University of Denmark |
Nielsen T.T.,Roskilde University |
And 5 more authors.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2010
This paper presents a novel approach to the preliminary, low-cost, national-scale mapping of wind energy, solar energy and certain categories of bio-energy resources in developing countries, using Mali as an example. The methods applied make extensive use of satellite remote sensing and meteorological mesoscale modeling. The paper presents first results from applying the methodology in Mali and discusses the appropriateness of the results obtained. It is shown that northern Mali has considerable wind energy potential, while average wind speeds in the southern part are too low to make wind power a competitive option. Solar energy resources are shown to be abundant in all of Mali, though the highest values are found in the south. The temporal variation is relatively limited. Bio-energy resources are also concentrated in the south, but there are small pockets of high vegetation productivity in the irrigated areas of the Niger inland delta that might be interesting from a renewable energy resource perspective. Finally, the paper discusses the role that renewable energy resources might play in the energy systems of Mali, given the spatio-temporal distribution of renewable energy resources. It is argued that at the current price of about 70 US$/barrel for fossil fuels, renewable energy resources are becoming economically as well as environmentally attractive options. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: KBBE-2009-3-4-01 | Award Amount: 1.34M | Year: 2010
The objective of the Global-Bio-Pact project is the development and harmonisation of global sustainability certification systems for biomass production, conversion systems and trade in order to prevent negative socio-economic impacts. A functioning and sustainable certification scheme requires reliable data and profound research in order to evaluate impacts of biomass production. Currently, the sustainability debate is faced by the lack of data on socio-economic impacts. Furthermore, mainly impacts of biofuels are investigated and impacts of bioproducts are neglected. Thus, a harmonised certification scheme for biofuels and bioproducts is required. In order to harmonise sustainability certification globally, the Global-Bio-Pact proposal includes partners from Europe, Latin America, Africa, Asia and USA. Emphasis of the Global-Bio-Pact proposal will be placed on a detailed assessment of the socio-economic impacts of raw material production and a variety of biomass conversion chains. The impact of biomass production on global and local food security and the links between environmental and socio-economic impacts will be analysed. The Global-Bio-Pact project will investigate the interrelationship of global sustainability certification systems with international trade of biomass and bioproducts. Furthermore, Global-Bio-Pact will assess public perception of biomass production for industrial uses. This will be completed by the development and test audit of a set of socio-economic sustainability criteria and indicators for inclusion into a future effective certification scheme. Thereby, opportunities and limitations of social issues in biomass/bioproducts certification schemes will be investigated. Finally, the project will elaborate recommendations on how to best integrate socio-economic sustainability criteria in European legislation and policies on biomass and bioproducts. Results of the Global-Bio-Pact project will contribute to the EU energy policy and to the MDG.
Rasmussen K.,Copenhagen University |
Birch-Thomsen T.,Copenhagen University |
Bruun T.B.,Copenhagen University |
Egsmose R.,Copenhagen University |
And 6 more authors.
Geografisk Tidsskrift - Danish Journal of Geography | Year: 2015
The demand for biofuels has been rising, which has led developing countries to focus on production of feedstocks for biodiesel and bioethanol production. This has caused concerns for the impacts on food security, food prices and environmental sustainability. This paper examines a hypothetical case of cassava-based bioethanol production in southern Mali, assessing its environmental, economic and social sustainability. Results demonstrate that environmental sustainability of cassava-based bioethanol production depends on the ‘baseline’ chosen: Compared to the situation before the decline in cotton production 10 years ago, the carbon stocks will increase. However, if compared to the current situation, where considerable carbon stocks have accumulated in fallow fields, the loss of carbon will be substantial. Increased cassava production will create greater incomes and better temporal distribution of labour input. Analysis of the significance of current cassava production for food security shows that bioethanol production should be based on the attiéké variety of cassava, thereby avoiding interference with the important role of the bonouma in assuring food security in northern Mali. The key factor determining the economic feasibility is whether local farmers will be willing to supply cassava at a realistic price. The results indicate that this is likely to be the case. © 2015 The Royal Danish Geographical Society.