Malaysian Palm Oil Council

Kuala Selangor, Malaysia

Malaysian Palm Oil Council

Kuala Selangor, Malaysia
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Leow S.-S.,Malaysian Palm Oil Board | Sekaran S.D.,University of Malaya | Tan Y.,Malaysian Palm Oil Board | Sundram K.,Malaysian Palm Oil Council | Sambanthamurthi R.,Malaysian Palm Oil Board
Nutritional Neuroscience | Year: 2013

Objectives: Phenolics are important phytochemicals which have positive effects on chronic diseases, including neurodegenerative ailments. The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is a rich source of water-soluble phenolics. This study was carried out to discover the effects of administering oil palm phenolics (OPP) to mice, with the aim of identifying whether these compounds possess significant neuroprotective properties. Methods: OPP was given to BALB/c mice on a normal diet as fluids for 6 weeks while the controls were given distilled water. These animals were tested in a water maze and on a rotarod weekly to assess the effects of OPP on cognitive and motor functions, respectively. Using Illumina microarrays, we further explored the brain gene expression changes caused by OPP in order to determine the molecular mechanisms involved. Realtime quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction experiments were then carried out to validate the microarray data. Results: We found that mice given OPP showed better cognitive function and spatial learning when tested in a water maze, and their performance also improved when tested on a rotarod, possibly due to better motor function and balance. Microarray gene expression analysis showed that these compounds up-regulated genes involved in brain development and activity, such as those under the regulation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor. OPP also down-regulated genes involved in inflammation. Discussion: These results suggest that the improvement of mouse cognitive and motor functions by OPP is caused by the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of the extract. © W. S. Maney & Son Ltd 2013.


Karupaiah T.,National University of Malaysia | Tan C.H.,National University of Malaysia | Chinna K.,University of Malaya | Sundram K.,Malaysian Palm Oil Council
Journal of the American College of Nutrition | Year: 2011

Objective: Saturated fats increase total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and are linked to coronary artery disease risk. The effect of variance in chain length of saturated fatty acids (SFA) on coronary artery disease in human postprandial lipemia is not well elucidated. Methods: A total of 20 healthy volunteers were challenged with 3 test meals, similar in fat content (~31% en) but varying in saturated SFA content and polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratios (P/S). The 3 meals were lauric + myristic acid-rich (LM), P/S 0.19; palmitic acid-rich (POL), P/S 0.31; and stearic acid-rich (STE), P/S 0.22. Blood was sampled at fasted baseline and 2, 4, 5, 6, and 8 hours. Plasma lipids (triacylglycerol [TAG]) and lipoproteins (TC, LDL-C, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C]) were evaluated. Results: Varying SFA in the test meal significantly impacted postprandial TAG response (p < 0.05). Plasma TAG peaked at 5 hours for STE, 4 hours for POL, and 2 hours for LM test meals. Area-under-the-curve (AUC) for plasma TAG was increased significantly after STE treatment (STE > LM by 32.2%, p=0.003; STE > POL by 27.9%, p=0.023) but was not significantly different between POL and LM (POL > LM by 6.0%, p > 0.05). At 2 hours, plasma HDL-C increased significantly after the LM and POL test meals compared with STE (p < 0.05). In comparison to the STE test meal, HDL-C AUC was elevated 14.0% (p= 0.005) and 7.6% (p=0.023) by the LM and POL test meals, respectively. The TC response was also increased significantly by LM compared with both POL and STE test meals (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Chain length of saturates clearly mediated postmeal plasma TAG and HDL-C changes.


Ng W.P.Q.,University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus | Lam H.L.,University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus | Ng F.Y.,Malaysian Palm Oil Council | Kamal M.,University of Technology Malaysia | Lim J.H.E.,Synergy Global
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2012

This paper gives an overview of the green potential of the palm biomass industry, which contributes to Malaysia's economic and sustainable development. An overall picture of the green development indicators of the country is provided based on the authors' experiences in policy making, research and business development. The emerging palm biomass industry in Malaysia is foreseen to dominate the country's directional development in the coming years, particularly when the sustainability issue is raised globally. With the increasing volume of palm oil residue accumulation due to palm oil production, palm biomass is gaining significant attention and being increasingly utilised to produce various green products as well as highly valuable biochemicals, such as bioethanol, vitamins, etc. The palm oil industry has been identified as the key industry for expansion to achieve economic advancement along with the development of greener production processes in the country. Research on palm biomass, which is actively being carried out by both private and public institutions, is categorised. Furthermore, actions and policies to promote the implementation of green technology in Malaysia, while simultaneously defending both environmental and ecological health and promoting technology transformation, are summarised. Challenges and concerns over the green future of the country are discussed, as well as the business trend in the Malaysian palm biomass industry. Copyright © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Sambanthamurthi R.,Malaysian Palm Oil Board | Tan Y.,Malaysian Palm Oil Board | Sundram K.,Malaysian Palm Oil Council | Abeywardena M.,CSIRO | And 7 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2011

Waste from agricultural products represents a disposal liability, which needs to be addressed. Palm oil is the most widely traded edible oil globally, and its production generates 85 million tons of aqueous by-products annually. This aqueous stream is rich in phenolic antioxidants, which were investigated for their composition and potential in vitro biological activity. We have identified three isomers of caffeoylshikimic acid as major components of oil palm phenolics (OPP). The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay confirmed potent free radical scavenging activity. To test for possible cardioprotective effects of OPP, we carried out in vitro LDL oxidation studies as well as ex vivo aortic ring and mesenteric vascular bed relaxation measurements. We found that OPP inhibited the Cu-mediated oxidation of human LDL. OPP also promoted vascular relaxation in both isolated aortic rings and perfused mesenteric vascular beds pre-contracted with noradrenaline. To rule out developmental toxicity, we performed teratological studies on rats up to the third generation and did not find any congenital anomalies. Thus, these initial studies suggest that OPP is safe and may have a protective role against free radical damage, LDL oxidation and its attendant negative effects, as well as vascular constriction in mitigating atherosclerosis. Oil palm vegetation liquor thus represents a new source of phenolic bioactives. © 2011 The Authors.


Leow S.-S.,Malaysian Palm Oil Board | Sekaran S.D.,University of Malaya | Sundram K.,Malaysian Palm Oil Council | Tan Y.,Malaysian Palm Oil Board | Sambanthamurthi R.,Malaysian Palm Oil Board
Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics | Year: 2014

Background/Aim: Plant phenolics can inhibit, retard or reverse carcinogenesis, and may thus help prevent or treat cancer. Oil palm phenolics (OPP) previously showed anti-tumour activities in vivo via a cytostatic mechanism at 1,500 ppm gallic acid equivalent. Here, we report other possible molecular mechanisms by which this extract attenuates cancer, especially those concerning the immune response. Methods: We subcutaneously injected J558 myeloma cells in BALB/c mice and supplemented OPP orally at 1,500 ppm gallic acid equivalent. We observed the physiology parameters of these animals and harvested their spleens and livers after 18 h, 1 week and 4 weeks for microarray gene expression analysis using Illumina MouseRef-8 BeadChips. Results: Time course microarray analysis on spleens after injecting J558 myeloma cells in mice revealed that the immune response of tumour-bearing mice supplemented with OPP was lower compared to controls, thus suggesting delayed inflammation in response to OPP. In livers, cholesterol biosynthesis genes were upregulated while inflammatory genes were downregulated through time, further suggesting attenuation of systemic inflammation and cachexia. These effects correlated with the delayed in vivo development of syngeneic tumours in mice given OPP. Conclusions: This study suggests the possible utilisation of OPP as an anti-tumour and anti-cachexia agent. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Leow S.-S.,Malaysian Palm Oil Board | Sekaran S.D.,University of Malaya | Sundram K.,Malaysian Palm Oil Council | Tan Y.,Malaysian Palm Oil Board | Sambanthamurthi R.,Malaysian Palm Oil Board
BMC Genomics | Year: 2011

Background: Plant phenolics are important nutritional antioxidants which could aid in overcoming chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, two leading causes of death in the world. The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is a rich source of water-soluble phenolics which have high antioxidant activities. This study aimed to identify the in vivo effects and molecular mechanisms involved in the biological activities of oil palm phenolics (OPP) during healthy states via microarray gene expression profiling, using mice supplemented with a normal diet as biological models.Results: Having confirmed via histology, haematology and clinical biochemistry analyses that OPP is not toxic to mice, we further explored the gene expression changes caused by OPP through statistical and functional analyses using Illumina microarrays. OPP showed numerous biological activities in three major organs of mice, the liver, spleen and heart. In livers of mice given OPP, four lipid catabolism genes were up-regulated while five cholesterol biosynthesis genes were down-regulated, suggesting that OPP may play a role in reducing cardiovascular disease. OPP also up-regulated eighteen blood coagulation genes in spleens of mice. OPP elicited gene expression changes similar to the effects of caloric restriction in the hearts of mice supplemented with OPP. Microarray gene expression fold changes for six target genes in the three major organs tested were validated with real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and the correlation of fold changes obtained with these two techniques was high (R2= 0.9653).Conclusions: OPP showed non-toxicity and various pleiotropic effects in mice. This study implies the potential application of OPP as a valuable source of wellness nutraceuticals, and further suggests the molecular mechanisms as to how dietary phenolics work in vivo. © 2011 Leow et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Patten G.S.,CSIRO | Abeywardena M.Y.,CSIRO | Sundram K.,Malaysian Palm Oil Council | Tan Y.A.,Malaysian Palm Oil Board | Sambanthamurthi R.,Malaysian Palm Oil Board
Journal of Functional Foods | Year: 2015

The effects of a novel water soluble polyphenolics preparation (oil palm phenolics; OPP) on whole gastrointestinal transit, ex vivo proximal and distal colonic contractility and intact expulsion time in the distal colon were examined. Nine weeks of dietary supplementation with OPP at 50 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/rat per day had no effect on gastric emptying compared to the control (AIN-93M), but 30% substituted high amylose maize starch (HAMS) used as a positive resistant starch control, had significantly higher gastric emptying compared to both control and OPP. OPP increased distal colonic contractile response to KCl, PGE2 and angiotensin I compared with the control, whilst HAMS also had similar increased contractile responses. This correlated with faster distal colonic expulsion rates for OPP and HAMS compared with the control. The present study revealed that OPP, like resistant starch, has positive effects on distal colonic contractility and motility with potential putative roles in bowel function and health. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Gopalan Y.,University Technology of MARA | Shuaib I.L.,Advanced Medical and Dental Institute | Magosso E.,Advanced Medical and Dental Institute | Ansari M.A.,Advanced Medical and Dental Institute | And 8 more authors.
Stroke | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE-: Previous cell-based and animal studies showed mixed tocotrienols are neuroprotective, but the effect is yet to be proven in humans. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the protective activity of mixed tocotrienols in humans with white matter lesions (WMLs). WMLs are regarded as manifestations of cerebral small vessel disease, reflecting varying degrees of neurodegeneration and tissue damage with potential as a surrogate end point in clinical trials. METHODS-: A total of 121 volunteers aged ?35 years with cardiovascular risk factors and MRI-confirmed WMLs were randomized to receive 200 mg mixed tocotrienols or placebo twice a day for 2 years. The WML volumes were measured from MRI images taken at baseline, 1 year, and 2 years using a validated software and were compared. Fasting blood samples were collected for full blood chemistry investigation. RESULTS-: According to per-protocol (88 volunteers) and intention-to-treat (121 volunteers) analyses, the mean WML volume of the placebo group increased after 2 years, whereas that of the tocotrienol-supplemented group remained essentially unchanged. The mean WML volume change between the 2 groups was not significantly different (P=0.150) at the end of 1 year but was significant at the end of 2 years for both per-protocol and intention-to-treat analyses (P=0.019 and P=0.018). No significant difference was observed in the blood chemistry parameters between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS-: Mixed tocotrienols were found to attenuate the progression of WMLs. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.


Che Idris C.A.,Malaysian Palm Oil Board | Che Idris C.A.,National University of Malaysia | Karupaiah T.,National University of Malaysia | Sundram K.,Malaysian Palm Oil Council | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Functional Foods | Year: 2014

The protective effects of oil palm vitamin E and phenolics against atherosclerosis, either singly or in combination, were studied in an atherogenic rabbit model. Rabbits were either fed atherogenic diet only (CTR), or atherogenic diet with vitamin E (VIT E), or atherogenic diet with oil palm phenolics (OPP), or atherogenic diet with both vitamin E and oil palm phenolics (VIT E. +. OPP). Results from lipid profile and antioxidant analyses were not significantly different between groups ( p>. 0.05). However, fibrous plaques were associated with the CTR group (8.90. ±. 5.41%) and these were significantly less ( p<. 0.05) in the VIT E (2.88. ±. 2.01%) and OPP (1.48. ±. 4.45%) groups. Fibrous plaques were not detected at all in the VIT E. +. OPP group. Our findings suggest that oil palm vitamin E and oil palm phenolics individually inhibited atherosclerotic lesion development. However, oil palm vitamin E in combination with oil palm phenolics provided the highest protective effect against development of atherosclerotic lesions. © 2014 The Authors.


PubMed | Kumamoto University, National University of Malaysia, University of Malaya, Malaysian Palm Oil Council and Kewpie Corporation
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Lipids in health and disease | Year: 2016

Mayonnaise is used widely in contemporary human diet with widespread use as a salad dressing or spread on breads. Vegetable oils used in its formulation may be a rich source of -6 PUFAs and the higher-PUFA content of mayonnaise may be beneficial in mediating a hypocholesterolemic effect. This study, therefore, evaluated the functionality of mayonnaise on cardiometabolic risk withina regular human consumption scenario.Subjects underwent a randomized double-blind crossover trial, consuming diets supplemented with 20g/day of either soybean oil-based mayonnaise (SB-mayo) or palm olein-based mayonnaise (PO-mayo) for 4weeks each with a 2-week wash-out period. The magnitude of changes for metabolic outcomes between dietary treatments was compared with PO-mayo serving as the control. The data was analyzed by ANCOVA using the GLM model. Analysis was adjusted for weight changes.Treatments resulted in significant reductions in TC (diff=-0.25mmol/L; P=0.001), LDL-C (diff=-0.17mmol/L; P=0.016) and HDL-C (diff=-0.12mmol/L; P<0.001) in SB-mayo compared to PO-mayo without affecting LDL-C:HDL-C ratio (P>0.05). Lipoprotein particle change was significant with large LDL particles increasing after PO-mayo (diff=+63.2nmol/L; P=0.007) compared to SB-mayo but small LDL particles remained unaffected. Plasma glucose, apolipoproteins and oxidative stress markers remained unchanged.Daily use with 20g of linoleic acid-rich SB-mayo elicited reductions in TC and LDL-C concentrations without significantly changing LDL-C:HDL-C ratio or small LDL particle distributions compared to the PO-mayo diet.This clinical trial was retrospectively registered with the National Medical Research Register, National Institute of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, (NMRR-15-40-24035; registered on 29/01/2015; https://www.nmrr.gov.my/fwbPage.jsp?fwbPageId=ResearchISRForm&fwbAction=Update&fwbStep=10&pk.researchID=24035&fwbVMenu=3&fwbResearchAction=Update ). Ethical approval was obtained from the National University of Malaysias Medical Ethics Committee (UKM 1.5.3.5/244/SPP/NN-054-2011, approved on 25/05/2011).

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