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Leong L.V.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Bagheri Y.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Sadullah A.F.B.M.,Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research MIROS
European Journal of Scientific Research

Generally, transit timetables are created to improve the correspondence of vehicle departure times with passenger demand while minimizing resources such as the number of buses required. In this research, the relationship between headway delay and passenger loads, using observed data from buses in Penang Island was investigated. Analysis on the headway delay will serve to identify possible operation control actions which could improve service regularity and consequently reduce incidences of overloading and any other additional services. © 2010 EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. Source

Zulkipli Z.H.,Malaysian Institute Road Safety Research MIROS | Mohd Faudzi S.A.,Malaysian Institute Road Safety Research MIROS | Mohamed N.,Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research MIROS
2012 IRCOBI Conference Proceedings - International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury

Spine injury is one of the critical injuries due to vehicular accidents as injuries to the spine often cause morbidity and sometimes death especially if at upper cervical spine. This study aims to determine and compare the patterns of spinal injury in passenger car occupants, motorcyclists and pedestrians involved in road accidents. The study was undertaken on 670 victims of road traffic accidents who died due to all types of injuries and who were autopsied at Kuala Lumpur Hospital, Malaysia over a period of 4 years between January 2006 and December 2009. Of the 670 motor vehicle occupant fatalities included in the study, 176 (26.3%) cases presented with spine injuries. Most of the victims were motorcyclists (N=102, 62.2%) followed by passenger car occupants (N=43, 26.2%) and pedestrians (N=19, 11.6%). Of spinal injuries, the cervical region is the most common in all road accident victims. A higher proportion of MAIS 4 - 6 spine injuries were found for passenger car occupants compared to motorcyclists and pedestrians. Although 164 road accident victims presented with spine injuries, only 9 were attributed as the primary cause of death. Taking into account spine injuries contributing to fatal outcome, there were altogether 8.4% (56 out of 670) victims. The fatalities due to the spine injury are indeed very low and the occurrences of high severity spine injuries are usually concomitant with high severity injury in other body regions. The high severity of head and thorax injuries concomitant with spine injuries suggested that improved protection against injuries of these vital body regions could reduce spine injury severity as well. Source

Kausalyah V.,International Islamic University Malaysia | Shasthri S.,International Islamic University Malaysia | Abdullah K.A.,International Islamic University Malaysia | Idres M.M.,International Islamic University Malaysia | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Crashworthiness

This study proposes a method of achieving an optimised vehicle front-end profile for improved protection for both adult and child pedestrian groups, which at the same time is able to avoid designs that may cause Run-over scenarios. A hybrid model of a seven-parameter vehicle front-end geometry and a pedestrian dummy is used. Latin Hypercube sampling is utilised to generate a Plan of Experiments for the adult and child pedestrian cases. Head injury criteria results from the simulations that are tabulated as the response functions. The radial basis function method is used to obtain mathematical models for the response functions. Optimised front-end geometries are obtained using the Genetic Algorithm method. The optimised vehicle front-end profile for the adult pedestrian is shown to be different from that of the optimised profile for the child pedestrian, and optimised profiles are shown to be not mutually applicable for safety. Furthermore, Run-over scenario is observed in child pedestrian optimised profiles, where its occurrence invalidates the optimisation. A simple weighting method is used to optimise the geometry for both adult and child pedestrian groups. The Run-over occurrences are mapped using Logistic Regression and is subsequently used as a constraint for optimisation. The final optimised model is shown to achieve a safe vehicle front-end profile which equally caters for both adult and child pedestrians while simultaneously avoiding Run-over scenarios. © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Source

Abdul Manan M.M.,Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research MIROS | Varhelyi A.,Lund University
Safety Science

An observational study, focusing on motorcyclists, was conducted between June and August 2012 at access points on straight road sections of primary roads in Malaysia. This was done in order to gain more insight into the actual road traffic situation at these sites. The majority of the motorcyclists kept to the speed limit and lowered speed when approaching an access point, especially when road users were on it. However, when the primary road traffic volume was high, they maintained higher speeds compared to other vehicles. The behavioral observations revealed a risky right turning movement, i.e. Opposite Indirect Right Turn (OIRT), from the access point into the primary road. Motorcyclists generally had a high compliance rate of helmet (except for female motorcyclists) and headlight usage. Motorcyclists attempting to enter the primary road were poor at utilizing the turning indicator. They were observed not to turn their heads to look for vehicles when entering a road with a low volume of traffic, compared to entering a road with a high volume of traffic. Most of the motorcyclists did not comply with the stop line rule, especially those who made the OIRT. Motorcyclists entering from the access point are involved in serious traffic conflicts to about the same extent as other vehicles. Moreover, motorcyclists who stopped at the stop line and made a right turn into the primary road by accepting a short gap, resulting in a time lag of less than 4. s, were involved in the majority of the serious conflicts. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Venkatason K.,International Islamic University Malaysia | Abdullah K.A.,International Islamic University Malaysia | Sivaguru S.,International Islamic University Malaysia | Idres M.M.,International Islamic University Malaysia | And 2 more authors.
Applied Mechanics and Materials

In the event of an impact with an automobile, pedestrians suffer multiple impacts with the bumper, hood and the windscreen. The characteristics of a vehicle's front end and structural stiffness have a significant influence on the kinematics and injury risk of the pedestrian's body regions, in a vehicle-to-pedestrian collision. In this present study, the injury risk of the pedestrian is investigated in an impact with a deformable vehicle front end model for the purpose of validating the developed model. A simplified vehicle front end model consisting of a multi body windscreen and a finite element cowl, hood and bumper is developed. The MADYMO human pedestrian multi body dummy model is impacted by the vehicle front end model at the speed of 40 km/h. The injury to the various body segments namely the head, neck, sternum, lumbar, femur and tibia is obtained. The simulation values are compared to the experimental values for verification of the vehicle front end model. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland. Source

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