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Zulkipli Z.H.,Malaysian Institute Road Safety Research MIROS | Mohd Faudzi S.A.,Malaysian Institute Road Safety Research MIROS | Mohamed N.,Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research MIROS
2012 IRCOBI Conference Proceedings - International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury | Year: 2012

Spine injury is one of the critical injuries due to vehicular accidents as injuries to the spine often cause morbidity and sometimes death especially if at upper cervical spine. This study aims to determine and compare the patterns of spinal injury in passenger car occupants, motorcyclists and pedestrians involved in road accidents. The study was undertaken on 670 victims of road traffic accidents who died due to all types of injuries and who were autopsied at Kuala Lumpur Hospital, Malaysia over a period of 4 years between January 2006 and December 2009. Of the 670 motor vehicle occupant fatalities included in the study, 176 (26.3%) cases presented with spine injuries. Most of the victims were motorcyclists (N=102, 62.2%) followed by passenger car occupants (N=43, 26.2%) and pedestrians (N=19, 11.6%). Of spinal injuries, the cervical region is the most common in all road accident victims. A higher proportion of MAIS 4 - 6 spine injuries were found for passenger car occupants compared to motorcyclists and pedestrians. Although 164 road accident victims presented with spine injuries, only 9 were attributed as the primary cause of death. Taking into account spine injuries contributing to fatal outcome, there were altogether 8.4% (56 out of 670) victims. The fatalities due to the spine injury are indeed very low and the occurrences of high severity spine injuries are usually concomitant with high severity injury in other body regions. The high severity of head and thorax injuries concomitant with spine injuries suggested that improved protection against injuries of these vital body regions could reduce spine injury severity as well.

Venkatason K.,International Islamic University Malaysia | Abdullah K.A.,International Islamic University Malaysia | Sivaguru S.,International Islamic University Malaysia | Idres M.M.,International Islamic University Malaysia | And 2 more authors.
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

In the event of an impact with an automobile, pedestrians suffer multiple impacts with the bumper, hood and the windscreen. The characteristics of a vehicle's front end and structural stiffness have a significant influence on the kinematics and injury risk of the pedestrian's body regions, in a vehicle-to-pedestrian collision. In this present study, the injury risk of the pedestrian is investigated in an impact with a deformable vehicle front end model for the purpose of validating the developed model. A simplified vehicle front end model consisting of a multi body windscreen and a finite element cowl, hood and bumper is developed. The MADYMO human pedestrian multi body dummy model is impacted by the vehicle front end model at the speed of 40 km/h. The injury to the various body segments namely the head, neck, sternum, lumbar, femur and tibia is obtained. The simulation values are compared to the experimental values for verification of the vehicle front end model. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Kausalyah V.,International Islamic University Malaysia | Shasthri S.,International Islamic University Malaysia | Abdullah K.A.,International Islamic University Malaysia | Idres M.M.,International Islamic University Malaysia | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Crashworthiness | Year: 2014

This study proposes a method of achieving an optimised vehicle front-end profile for improved protection for both adult and child pedestrian groups, which at the same time is able to avoid designs that may cause Run-over scenarios. A hybrid model of a seven-parameter vehicle front-end geometry and a pedestrian dummy is used. Latin Hypercube sampling is utilised to generate a Plan of Experiments for the adult and child pedestrian cases. Head injury criteria results from the simulations that are tabulated as the response functions. The radial basis function method is used to obtain mathematical models for the response functions. Optimised front-end geometries are obtained using the Genetic Algorithm method. The optimised vehicle front-end profile for the adult pedestrian is shown to be different from that of the optimised profile for the child pedestrian, and optimised profiles are shown to be not mutually applicable for safety. Furthermore, Run-over scenario is observed in child pedestrian optimised profiles, where its occurrence invalidates the optimisation. A simple weighting method is used to optimise the geometry for both adult and child pedestrian groups. The Run-over occurrences are mapped using Logistic Regression and is subsequently used as a constraint for optimisation. The final optimised model is shown to achieve a safe vehicle front-end profile which equally caters for both adult and child pedestrians while simultaneously avoiding Run-over scenarios. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Mohd Yusoff M.F.,Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research MIROS | Baki M.M.,National University of Malaysia | Mohamed N.,Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research MIROS | Mohamed A.S.,National University of Malaysia | And 4 more authors.
Traffic Injury Prevention | Year: 2010

Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been identified as one of the significant risk factors for motor vehicle crashes (MVCs). In the interest of public safety, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of OSA and its associated factors among express bus drivers in Malaysia. Identifying factors or conditions related with OSA is very important because they can be used as indicators to subject a person to a confirmatory diagnosis using polysomnography testing. Methods: Two hundred eighty-nine randomly selected express bus drivers from 5 express bus companies participated in the study. Information on demography, medical history, clinical symptoms, and signs of OSA were collected by a designated medical officer and the diagnosis of OSA was done based on the Apnea Hypopnoea Index (AHI) from polysomnography testing. Results: Based on AHI, 128 (44.3%) subjects were diagnosed as having OSA with 83 (28.7%), 26 (9.0%), and 26 (6.6%) classified as mild, moderate, and severe OSA, respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis results showed that age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.09), snoring (OR = 3.54, 95% CI 1.91-6.57), body mass index (BMI; OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.09-1.25), hypertension (OR = 1.87, 95% CI 1.02-3.40), and neck circumference (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.18-1.46) were significantly associated with OSA status. Conclusions: The results supported the need for identifying the risk group for OSA among express bus drivers and the need to diagnose them early for an early intervention. © 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Omar A.,Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research MIROS | Lamin F.,Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research MIROS | Mohamed N.,Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research MIROS
International Journal of Crashworthiness | Year: 2016

The current research work focuses on the variability of brake pads’ composition in Malaysian automotive aftermarket, and the correlation with price after the phasing out of asbestos. Survey was done in four of Selangor districts, in order to study the price variation of brake pads for the same passenger vehicle. In total, 13 of semi-metallic brake pads with variation of price group were selected for elemental composition study. For this purpose, a scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray mapping and spectrum was used to identify and analyse different constituents. From the study, the material composition of the brake pads does not influence the commercial price of brake pads in the market. Furthermore, expensive brake pads do not necessarily contain the highest fibre content. Metals are used widely due to their high density, hardness and good thermal conductivity. © 2016 Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research

Abdul Manan M.M.,Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research MIROS | Varhelyi A.,Lund University
Safety Science | Year: 2015

An observational study, focusing on motorcyclists, was conducted between June and August 2012 at access points on straight road sections of primary roads in Malaysia. This was done in order to gain more insight into the actual road traffic situation at these sites. The majority of the motorcyclists kept to the speed limit and lowered speed when approaching an access point, especially when road users were on it. However, when the primary road traffic volume was high, they maintained higher speeds compared to other vehicles. The behavioral observations revealed a risky right turning movement, i.e. Opposite Indirect Right Turn (OIRT), from the access point into the primary road. Motorcyclists generally had a high compliance rate of helmet (except for female motorcyclists) and headlight usage. Motorcyclists attempting to enter the primary road were poor at utilizing the turning indicator. They were observed not to turn their heads to look for vehicles when entering a road with a low volume of traffic, compared to entering a road with a high volume of traffic. Most of the motorcyclists did not comply with the stop line rule, especially those who made the OIRT. Motorcyclists entering from the access point are involved in serious traffic conflicts to about the same extent as other vehicles. Moreover, motorcyclists who stopped at the stop line and made a right turn into the primary road by accepting a short gap, resulting in a time lag of less than 4. s, were involved in the majority of the serious conflicts. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Abdul Manan M.M.,Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research MIROS | Varhelyi A.,Lund University
Safety Science | Year: 2015

The majority of motorcycle accident fatalities in Malaysia occur on primary roads, especially at access points situated along straight road sections. To explore the behavioral factors that may contribute to motorcyclists being involved in hazardous situations at these locations and to develop working hypotheses for a consecutive quantitative study, a qualitative observational study was carried out. Six subject riders exiting from the access point of a primary road were observed. The observations were narrated in detail and coding was used as a means to analyze the observations and divide (and sub-divide) them into categories, which were then segregated into themes. The results of the study produced a number of hypotheses based on various combination themes, i.e. background condition, motorcyclists' behavior before exit, motorcyclists' behavior during exit, and involvement in serious traffic conflicts. The newly developed hypotheses from this study are presented and discussed; they are put forward to be tested in a consecutive quantitative observational study. This study also presents novelty in terms of applying a qualitative observational study on motorcyclists, which can be easily adopted not only for Malaysian researches but also all countries that face similar motorcycle problems at access points or junctions. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Hamidun R.,Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research MIROS | Ishak S.Z.,Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research MIROS | Kordi N.E.,University Technology of MARA | Endut I.R.,University Technology of MARA
Jurnal Teknologi | Year: 2016

Signalized intersections in an urban area are expecting the high volume of mixed traffic with various conflicting movements. This situation would greatly risk the safety of pedestrian as vulnerable road users, especially in a busy capital city like Kuala Lumpur. However, predicting risk based on accident data would neglect many risk factors associated. Thus, this paper presented an application of the pedestrian crossing risk assessment (PedCRA) model using Petri Nets approach to be compared with the risk calculated using accident data for thirty signalized intersections in Kuala Lumpur. The prediction of risk using this model is able to consider various risk factors, including illegal behavior, signal setting, traffic volume, road geometric layout and environment. Prediction of risk for selected sites were compared with the pedestrian accident data for 5 year period as the actual risk value. The Chi-Square goodness of fit was performed and the result showed that the predicted risk value and actual risk values follow the same distribution pattern. © 2016 Penerbit UTM Press. All rights reserved.

Hamidun R.,Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research MIROS | Kordi N.E.,University Technology of MARA | Endut I.R.,University Technology of MARA | Ishak S.Z.,Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research MIROS
Jurnal Teknologi | Year: 2016

Analyses of pedestrian accident indicate that crossing behavior is one of the factors contributing to the high risk of accident. Understanding the pedestrian crossing behavior have been widely studied around the world, as the behavior of this vulnerable group are random and inconsistent. Thus, this study observed the crossing behavior of pedestrians at urban signalized intersections in Malaysia. The crossing behavior of 239 pedestrians was observed and videotaped at two signalized intersections in Kuala Lumpur. Data on crossing behaviors were extracted and coded for 10 behavioral categories of relevant behavior. The behavioral differences among gender were also examined. The results show that most of the pedestrian observed neglect to press the call button before crossing, which consequence of many illegal crossing. Different crossing paths were also observed for the three crossing styles at signalized intersections. © 2016 Penerbit UTM Press. All rights reserved.

Leong L.V.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Bagheri Y.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Sadullah A.F.B.M.,Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research MIROS
European Journal of Scientific Research | Year: 2010

Generally, transit timetables are created to improve the correspondence of vehicle departure times with passenger demand while minimizing resources such as the number of buses required. In this research, the relationship between headway delay and passenger loads, using observed data from buses in Penang Island was investigated. Analysis on the headway delay will serve to identify possible operation control actions which could improve service regularity and consequently reduce incidences of overloading and any other additional services. © 2010 EuroJournals Publishing, Inc.

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