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Ismail H.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Munusamy Y.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Mariatti M.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Ratnam C.T.,Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research MINT
Malaysian Journal of Microscopy | Year: 2010

In this paper, we demonstrate the effect of organoclay dispersion on the thermal degradation and flammability of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)/ natural rubber (SMR L)/organoclay thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) nanocomposites. EVA/SMR L/organoclay TPE nanocomposites were melt compounded in an internal mixer, Haake Rheometer, at 120°C and 50 rpm rotor speed. The EVA: SMR L ratio was fixed at 50: 50 meanwhile the organoclay loading was varied from 2 to 10 phr (parts per hundred resins). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that thermal stability of the nanocomposites was improved with incorporation of organoclay. Furthermore, flammability of nanocomposites was reduced dramatically with incorporation of only 8 phr organoclay. Results from transmission electron microscope (TEM), showed that the organoclay particles which consists of individual silicate layers in ordered structure, were intercalated and exfoliated in the nanocomposites at 2 phr loading. When the organoclay loading increased up to 8 phr, agglomerates was observed. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs revealed that nanoscale dispersion of organoclay leads to formation of compact char on the surface of polymer matrix which acts as protective barrier layer. Source


Leo C.P.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Linggawati A.,National University of Malaysia | Mohammad A.W.,National University of Malaysia | Ghazali Z.,Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research MINT
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2011

Nylon-66 is a typical semicrystalline polymer that can be crosslinked using crosslinking agents and electron beam irradiation. Hybrid nylon-66-based membranes are more porous but denser compared to the pure nylon-66 membrane. Besides that, hybrid nylon-66 membranes exhibit higher water uptake and severe swelling in water. Si/nylon-66 membranes were prepared by adding γ-aminopropyltriethoxylsilane (APTEOS). Crosslinked silica in nylon-66 membranes is confirmed with high gel content and Fourier transform infrared peaks, but XRD results showed that there is a low crystalline degree in these membranes. The thermal stability of hybrid nylon-66 membranes is also less affected by APTEOS. The crosslinking agent only improves storage modulus in hybrid nylon-66 membranes. After irradiation, it is learned that APTEOS improves separation performance of nylon-66 membranes. However, excessive APTEOS causes the ratio of effective thickness over porosity (Δx/Ak) reduces significantly resulting a lower permeability membrane. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Yazid H.,University of Malaya | Yazid H.,University Malaysia Perlis | Arof H.,University of Malaya | Yazid H.,Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research MINT | And 3 more authors.
NDT and E International | Year: 2011

Automated detection of welding defects in radiographic images becomes nontrivial when uneven illumination, contrast and noise are present. In this paper, a new approach using surface thresholding method is proposed to detect defects in radiographic images of welding joints. In the first stage, several image processing techniques namely fuzzy c means clustering, region filling, mean filtering, edge detection, Otsu thresholding, and morphological operations method are utilized to locate the area where defects might exist. This is followed by the construction of the inverse thresholding surface and its implementation to locate defects in the identified area. The proposed method was tested on 60 radiographic images and it obtained 94.6% sensitivity. Its performance is compared to that of the watershed segmentation, which obtained 69.6%. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Yazid H.,University of Malaya | Yazid H.,University Malaysia Perlis | Arof H.,University of Malaya | Yazid H.,Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research MINT
Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation | Year: 2012

Automated detection of welding defects in radiographic images becomes non-trivial when uneven illumination, contrast and noise are present. In this paper, a new surface thresholding method is introduced to detect defects in radiographic images of welding joints. In the first stage, several image processing techniques namely fuzzy c means clustering, region filling, mean filtering, edge detection, Otsu's thresholding and morphological operations method are utilised to locate the area in which defects might exist. This is followed by the implementation of inverse surface thresholding with partial differential equation to locate isolated areas that represent the defects in the second stage. The proposed method obtained a promising result with high precision. © 2012 Taylor & Francis. Source


Rahman M.M.,International Islamic University Malaysia | Yusof A.M.,University of Technology Malaysia | Wood A.K.H.,Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research MINT | Shamsiah A.,Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research MINT
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2011

A simple and less expensive solvent extraction method was used with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in the speciation of two environmentally significant, toxic forms of arsenic: arsenite and arsenate. Dissolved inorganic arsenic species in drinking waters from reservoirs and treatment plants were determined by the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analyses. Prior to the analysis the water samples were precocentrated by solvent extraction using APCDT to separate the arsenic species from elemental interferences. The detection limit of this method achieved was 0.059 μgL-1. The suitability of the technique in this work is discussed in relation to risk assessment studies of public health. © (2011) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland. Source

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