Saner P.,University of Zürich |
Loh Y.Y.,Universiti Malaysia Sabah |
Ong R.C.,Malaysian Forest Research Institute |
Hector A.,University of Zürich
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012
Deforestation in the tropics is an important source of carbon C release to the atmosphere. To provide a sound scientific base for efforts taken to reduce emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD+) good estimates of C stocks and fluxes are important. We present components of the C balance for selectively logged lowland tropical dipterocarp rainforest in the Malua Forest Reserve of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Total organic C in this area was 167.9 Mg C ha -1±3.8 (SD), including: Total aboveground (TAGC: 55%; 91.9 Mg C ha -1±2.9 SEM) and belowground carbon in trees (TBGC: 10%; 16.5 Mg C ha -1±0.5 SEM), deadwood (8%; 13.2 Mg C ha -1±3.5 SEM) and soil organic matter (SOM: 24%; 39.6 Mg C ha -1±0.9 SEM), understory vegetation (3%; 5.1 Mg C ha -1±1.7 SEM), standing litter (<1%; 0.7 Mg C ha -1±0.1 SEM) and fine root biomass (<1%; 0.9 Mg C ha -1±0.1 SEM). Fluxes included litterfall, a proxy for leaf net primary productivity (4.9 Mg C ha -1 yr -1±0.1 SEM), and soil respiration, a measure for heterotrophic ecosystem respiration (28.6 Mg C ha -1 yr -1±1.2 SEM). The missing estimates necessary to close the C balance are wood net primary productivity and autotrophic respiration. Twenty-two years after logging TAGC stocks were 28% lower compared to unlogged forest (128 Mg C ha -1±13.4 SEM); a combined weighted average mean reduction due to selective logging of -57.8 Mg C ha -1 (with 95% CI -75.5 to -40.2). Based on the findings we conclude that selective logging decreased the dipterocarp stock by 55-66%. Silvicultural treatments may have the potential to accelerate the recovery of dipterocarp C stocks to pre-logging levels. © 2012 Saner et al.
Hattori T.,Japan Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute |
Yamashita S.,Japan Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute |
Lee S.-S.,Malaysian Forest Research Institute
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2012
We reviewed the ecological characteristics of wood-inhabiting fungi in Malaysia in relation to the major threats to these fungi; we also examined the forest uses that would help to conserve them. Although wood-inhabiting fungi do not show high host specificity or preference in many tropical areas, several are specific to Dipterocarpaceae trees in Malaysia and some species may preferably inhabit other minor tree species. Tree size and decomposition stage are also important determinants of which fungi are present. Among the polypores described by E. J. H. Corner, 41 and 26 species have been recorded only from Malaysian lowland rainforest and montane forest, respectively. Evidence suggests that both of these forest types in Malaysia are home to unique fungal communities. More than 30 polypore species described by Corner are known only from their type localities. These species are likely rare and may be restricted to old-growth forests. Logging decreases species richness of wood-inhabiting fungi because the number of natural treefalls is decreased in logged forests, and the decline of old-growth forests is a major threat to conservation of Malaysian fungi. However, species richness of wood-inhabiting fungi is relatively high in old secondary forests and forests undergoing reduced-impact logging. The diversity of wood-inhabiting fungi is extremely low in oil palm plantations, whereas several species inhabit rubber-tree and acacia plantations. Preservation of old-growth forest is essential for conserving rare wood-inhabiting fungi in Malaysia, but old secondary forests, reduced-impact logged forests, and matured tree plantations may have some importance for the conservation of some species. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Sreetheran M.,Copenhagen University |
Sreetheran M.,Malaysian Forest Research Institute |
van den Bosch C.C.K.,Copenhagen University |
van den Bosch C.C.K.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Urban Forestry and Urban Greening | Year: 2014
Studies have pointed at the negative side of urban green spaces in terms of evoking fear of crime. However research on fear-provoking attributes suggests that there usually is no single attribute that influences fear but that rather a combination of attributes prevails. The aim of the paper is to systematically review those attributes that evoke fear of crime in urban green spaces and to highlight their complex interaction by adopting a social-ecological framework. Results include an overview of the reviewed literature with regard to authorship, journal, geographical distribution of the studies, types of urban green spaces studies, types of landscape stimulus used, applied methods, types of respondents involved and main study findings. Forty-eight studies met the authors' inclusion criteria. The majority of the studies highlighted that individual factors (such as gender and past experience) were more influential than social and physical factors in evoking fear of crime. A proposed socio-ecological framework highlights the attributes which evoke fear of crime in urban green spaces and its interactions and can help guide future research. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH.
Hamdan O.,Malaysian Forest Research Institute |
Khali Aziz H.,Malaysian Forest Research Institute |
Mohd Hasmadi I.,University Putra Malaysia
Remote Sensing of Environment | Year: 2014
This study has been carried out to evaluate the relationship between Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-band SAR (PALSAR) backscattering coefficients and the aboveground biomass (AGB) of a managed mangrove forest in Malaysia. Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve known as Matang Mangroves was selected as the study area. It covers about 41,000ha of mangrove forest and is the largest single mangrove ecosystem in Peninsular Malaysia. A mosaic of L-band PALSAR fine beam dual (FBD) with 25mpixel spacing data for the year 2010 was provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) within the framework of the ALOS Kyoto and Carbon (K&C) Initiative. A total of 320 sampling plots that were collected in 2010 and 2011 were used in the study. The calculated plot-based AGB were correlated to the pixels/backscatter of PALSAR data. The best correlation function (i.e. from HV backscatter) was used to estimate and determine the aboveground biomass of the Matang Mangroves. The study found that the estimated AGB in Matang Mangroves ranged between 2.98 and 378.32±33.90Mgha-1 with an average of 99.40±33.90Mgha-1 and a total AGB of about 4.25 million Mg. The HV backscatter started to saturate at an AGB of 100Mgha-1 and the errors associated with the estimation occurred largely when the AGB exceeded 150Mgha-1. The study also found that the manipulation of polarisation was useful in discriminating succession levels of mangroves. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Tumirah K.,University Putra Malaysia |
Tumirah K.,Malaysian Forest Research Institute |
Hussein M.Z.,University Putra Malaysia |
Zulkarnain Z.,University Putra Malaysia |
Rafeadah R.,Malaysian Forest Research Institute
Energy | Year: 2014
This study deals with fabrication, physico-chemical characterizations and thermal properties of n-octadecane nanocapsules as organic PCM (phase change materials) for TES (thermal energy storage). Nano-encapsulated organic PCM was fabricated by encapsulation of n-octadecane as a core with St (styrene) - MMA (methylmethacrylate) copolymer shell using miniemulsion in-situ polymerization method. The influence of St/MMA and n-octadecane/copolymer mass ratio on the encapsulation processes, physico-chemical and thermal properties of the resulting nanocapsules has been studied systematically. DSC (differential scanning calorimeter) analysis indicated that the n-octadecane in the nanocapsules form melts at 29.5°C and crystallize at 24.6°C. N-octadecane nanocapsules has an enthalpy of 107.9 and 104.9 Jg-1 for melting and crystallization, respectively. TGA (thermal gravimetric analysis) thermograms showed that the nano-encapsulated organic PCM degraded in two distinguishable steps and has a good chemical stability. The thermal cycling test of the nanocapsules was carried out for 360 heating/cooling cycles and indicates that the developed nanomaterial has good chemical stability and thermal reliability. Based on all the results obtained, it can be concluded that n-octadecane/St-MMA nanocapsules have potential for thermal energy storage for buildings and other applications. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Teoh Y.P.,Universiti Sains Malaysia |
Don M.M.,Universiti Sains Malaysia |
Ujang S.,Malaysian Forest Research Institute
Journal of Wood Science | Year: 2011
Rubber trees were introduced into the Malay Peninsula more than a century ago. The normal economical lifespan of a rubber tree is about 25 years, and, traditionally, rubberwood was used as firewood by the rural community. In recent decades, rubberwood has become an important timber for wood products, particularly in the furniture manufacturing sector, due to its attractive features, cream color, and good working properties. Sapstain, mold, and wooddecaying fungi are serious threats to rubberwood. Conventional chemical control has been a successful method of preventing staining fungal growth, but the effects of these chemicals are of concern because they create problems for the environment and public health. Thus, biological control has been recognized as an alternative approach to the problem. This article reviews the properties, potential utilization, and problems of protecting rubberwood against sapstain, mold, and wood-decaying fungi, and discusses the treatment methods available. Advances in biological control, particularly biofungicides, are emphasized as an alternative method for rubberwood treatment. © 2011 The Japan Wood Research Society.
Adiana M.A.,Malaysian Forest Research Institute |
Mazura M.P.,Malaysian Forest Research Institute
Journal of Molecular Structure | Year: 2011
Senna alata L. commonly known as candle bush belongs to the family of Fabaceae and the plant has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic, laxative and antiplatelet-aggregating activity. In order to develop a rapid and effective analysis method for studying integrally the main constituents in the medicinal materials and their extracts, discriminating the extracts from different extraction process, comparing the categories of chemical constituents in the different extracts and monitoring the qualities of medicinal materials, we applied Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) associated with second derivative infrared spectroscopy and two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy (2D-IR) to study the main constituents of S. alata and its different extracts (extracted by hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol in turn). The findings indicated that FT-IR and 2D-IR can provide many holistic variation rules of chemical constituents. Use of the macroscopical fingerprint characters of FT-IR and 2D-IR spectrum can identify the main chemical constituents in medicinal materials and their extracts, but also compare the components differences among similar samples. In a conclusion, FT-IR spectroscopy combined with 2D correlation analysis provides a powerful method for the quality control of traditional medicines. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ng F.S.P.,Malaysian Forest Research Institute
Journal of Tropical Forest Science | Year: 2013
The age of trees in tropical rainforests where there are no annual dry seasons cannot be obtained by counting annual growth rings because such rings do not develop. However, the decay of wood in the humid tropics appears to be related to time and this relationship may provide a method for estimating the age of trees that have hollow (decayed) cores. © Forest Research Institute Malaysia.
Yao T.L.,Malaysian Forest Research Institute
Blumea: Journal of Plant Taxonomy and Plant Geography | Year: 2013
Nine new species of the genus Thottea, namely T. anthonysamyi, T. kamarudiniana, T. longipedunculata, T. papilionis, T. piscodora, T. reflexa, T. ruthiae and T. terengganuensis from Peninsular Malaysia (eight species) and T. praetermissa from Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore (one species) are described and illustrated. Distribution maps are provided and conservation status is assessed for the new species. Thottea dependens and T. tricornis are redefined and T. parviflora is lectotypified. Thottea is now represented by 16 species in Peninsular Malaysia and two in Singapore. A spherical-ovoid shaped perianth with an aperture at the top is observed for the first time in Thottea. The white and bicoloured perianth are described for the first time in Peninsular Malaysian Thottea. Eight out of the nine novelties fall in the IUCN 'Threatened' category, and six of them are considered as 'Critically Endangered'. © 2013 Naturalis Biodiversity Center.
Kiew R.,Malaysian Forest Research Institute
Edinburgh Journal of Botany | Year: 2010
Paraboea gracillima Kiew (Gesneriaceae) is described from Perlis, Malaysia, and from Ban Khamphaengphen in Peninsular Thailand. Paraboea lambokensis Kiew is described from two hills in Kelantan, Malaysia. Both are restricted to limestone. Paraboea lambokensis is endemic in Peninsular Malaysia and is Critically Endangered, while P. gracillima, which is protected in the Perlis State Park, is categorised as Least Concern.© 2010 Trustees of the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.