Malaysian Cocoa Board

Kampung Baharu Nilai, Malaysia

Malaysian Cocoa Board

Kampung Baharu Nilai, Malaysia

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Posada F.J.,IPM | Virdiana I.,Bah Lias Research Station | Navies M.,Malaysian Cocoa Board | Pava-Ripoll M.,University of Maryland University College | Hebbar P.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Journal of Insect Science | Year: 2011

This paper describes the main distinguishing characteristics of female and male pupae and adults of cocoa pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Two pairs of tubercles present on the sterna of segments IX and X of the female pupae are useful in differentiating female from male pupae. The female genital opening is located anterior to the first pair of tubercles and forms a plateau in which the center has a light brown longitudinal depression that indicates the female genital opening. The male genital opening is a conspicuous, brown, longitudinal slit located between the two pairs of tubercles. The sex of the adult moth can be determined by examining the ventrocaudal segments of the abdomen. The last segment of the female abdomen is white, compressed laterally and at the tip, and the hairy anal papillae can be seen. In the male, the ventrocaudal end of the abdomen is black and robust. This information will be useful for laboratory and field diagnosis and while working on sex ratios of this important pest of cocoa.


Asimah H.,Malaysia Cocoa Board | Albert L.,Malaysian Cocoa Board | Idris A.B.,National University of Malaysia
Journal of Entomology | Year: 2015

Fumigant toxicity of Ethyl Formate (EF) against four major cocoa storage pests was carried out on a semi commercial trial of two metric ton of cocoa beans under sheet without forced air circulation. The EF with concentration from 76-380 g L-1 were studied against pupae, larvae and adult of Cocyra cephalonica and Ephestia cautella (moth) and Tribolium castaneum and Lasioderma serricorne (beetles). These stored pests were inserted into a wire mesh tubes 6x1.5 centimeters (cm) and then arranged in a 25x2.5 cm polyethylene tubes and then inserted inside gunny sacks and exposed to the EF gas for 40 h with surrounding temperature and relative humidity (R.H.) recorded throughout the trial of 26±0.3-34±0.4°C and 65±0.4-91±0.2%, respectively. While, the temperature inside the tarpaulin was between 24±0.3-30±0.2°C and the R.H. as minimum of 42±0.4% and maximum of 63±0.3%. The result indicated that complete mortality for all stages of insects was detected at minimum concentration of EF (190 g L_1). Different stages and insect species gave difference response to the toxicity level of EF. However, the LC99 value for larvae and pupae of all stages of four insects tested showed no significant different among species except for adults of T. castaneum and L. serricorne. For LC50 value for larvae of L. serricorne, E. cautella and L. serricorne pupae are relatively more susceptible to EF than other two species. The estimated probit regressions were well fitted to the response as the chi-square values for larvae, pupae of four pest and two adults pests tested were not significant at 5% level of confident. The residue of EF was not found in whole beans, nibs and cocoa beans. As such the EF was successfully developed as a fumigant for treatment of pests control for dry cocoa beans. © 2015 Academic Journals Inc.


Ahmad F.,Malaysian Cocoa Board | Daud W.M.A.W.,University of Malaya | Ahmad M.A.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Radzi R.,Malaysian Cocoa Board | Azmi A.A.,Malaysian Cocoa Board
Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering | Year: 2013

A series of activated carbon from cocoa shell (CSAC) was prepared from cocoa shell pellet (CS) by carbonization and followed by physical activation using CO2 as the activation agent. Carbonization was done in a flow of N2 using a fixed-bed reactor at 400, 500, 600, 700, 800 and 900 C with soaking time at the carbonization temperature for an hour. The selected char indicated completion of the aromatization process which suggests no structural changes beyond this temperature. Char monolith, carbonized at 800 C were activated at 850 C using a fixed bed reactor for different burn-offs. The drilling of the pores possibly occurred at burn-off below 60% which indicated by huge increase of absolute pore volume against the burn-off. The surface area at 48.5% burn-off was estimated at 366.26 m2 g-1. High burn-off product tends to develop larger micropore and moderate BET surface area. The largest surface area of CSAC was recorded at 558.25 m2 g-1. During activation, the aromatization of CSAC increased but the aliphacity decreased accordingly. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Chang A.L.S.,Malaysian Cocoa Board
Jurnal Teknologi (Sciences and Engineering) | Year: 2013

Sequential sampling plan (SSP) has been widely used in many engineering and quality control study. The advantage of using the SSP is the sample size is not fixed in advance, but is determined in part by the results of the sampling process. The application of the SSP is not limited to the industry, it also being used in pest management. This is because the SSP are generally more cost effective than plans based on a fixed sample size. Wald's Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) is one of the most common sequential sampling plans in insect pest management. It has been used to determine pest status at one time which could be used, through time, to monitor the status of the population and to take action when the pest density exceeded the Economic Threshold Level (ETL). Cocoa pod borer or CPB (Conopomorpha cramerella (Snell)) is a pest of concern to the cocoa growers in South-East Asia that has become one of the major factors that dampened the interest expressed in cocoa cultivation because of the heavy losses of cocoa pods due to the pest if effective control measure is not employed. The chemical control appeared to be one of the effective control measure used by the growers to control the CPB. Current practice used by the growers in applying the chemical is biweekly spraying which could see the increasing cost of chemical and labor used. The study was conducted to develop the Wald's SPRT to monitor the CPB infestation level relative to the ETL based on counting the CPB eggs found on the pods aged 1 month before ripen or pod length 131 mm to 150 mm. The performance of the Wald's SPRT was validated using independent data sets collected from Cocoa Research and Development Center (CRDC) Madai. © 2013 Penerbit UTM Press. All rights reserved.


Ahmad F.,Malaysian Cocoa Board | Daud W.M.A.W.,University of Malaya | Ahmad M.A.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Radzi R.,Malaysian Cocoa Board
Chemical Engineering Research and Design | Year: 2013

Cocoa shell pellets were converted into activated carbon (CSAC) by carbonization at 800°C followed by activation at 850°C in CO2 flow until reaching burn off at approximately 48%. The CSAC was treated with hydrochloric acid (HCl) using response surface methodology (RSM), where the effect of soaking times (1, 2 and 4h), temperatures (30, 50, 70°C) and concentration of HCl (0.1, 1 and 2M) were studied. CSAC treated with 1M HCl at higher temperatures (>60°C) yielded CSAC with low ash content (<10%). Acid-treatment process parameters, particularly the reaction temperature, determined the composition and types of functional groups existing in the CSAC. High concentrations of oxygen functional groups were detected in both untreated CSAC and CSAC treated at low acid concentration (1M). High concentrations of nitrogen functional groups were detected only in CSAC treated at acid concentration (2M). © 2013 The Institution of Chemical Engineers.


Ahmad F.,Malaysian Cocoa Board | Daud W.M.A.W.,University of Malaya | Ahmad M.A.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Radzi R.,Malaysian Cocoa Board
Chemical Engineering Journal | Year: 2011

The cocoa shell (CS) flake was ground, sieved and pressed into pellets. The pellets were carbonized at 800 ° C and subjected to activation at 850 ° C under a flow of CO 2 for several activation burn off. The cocoa shell-based activated carbon (CSAC) showed moderate surface area (248 m 2 g -1), a low mesoporosity ratio with a pore size in the range between 2 and 4 nm. CSAC also displays the presence of aliphatic, aromatic hydrocarbons, C O and a near absence of C-O. CSAC was evaluated for its ability to adsorb 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). The adsorption time and initial dye concentration study on adsorption performance was carried out in a batch system. The results indicate that the Freundlich, Temkin and Langmuir isotherms fit well (R 2 > 0.9). The results from the kinetic study show that 4-NP adsorption follows pseudo-second-order and Boyd models. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Izzreen I.,Malaysian Cocoa Board | Noriham A.,University Technology of MARA
International Food Research Journal | Year: 2011

Efficacy of some Malaysian herbal aqueous extracts, BHA/BHT (synthetic antioxidants) and ascorbic acid in retarding oxidative rancidity was tested with cakes. The development of lipid oxidation products during 15 days at room temperature was evaluated by means of Peroxide Value (PV) and Thiobarbituric acidreactive substances (TBARS) value. The six formulations consists of control sample (cake without addition of antioxidant) (F1), cake added with curry leaves extract (F2), cake incorporated with kesum leaves extract (F3), cake added with tenggek burung leaves extract (F4), cake incorporated with ascorbic acid (F5) and cake added with BHA/BHT (F6). Formulation with the incorporation of tenggek burung leaves extract showed powerful oxidative stability effect compared to the formulations with othe plant extracts and control sample. However, cakes with BHA/BHT showed the strongest oxidative stability throughout the storage period. Therefore, it is suggested that tenggek burung leaves extract can be added into the food system for effectiveness as antioxidant to prolong the shelf life of the product. © 2011.

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