Adlina Z.,Malaysian Agrifood Corporation Berhad
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014
The 'Frangi' papaya is a F1 hybrid developed by the Malaysian Agrifood Corporation Berhad (MAFC) from hybridization between 2 inbred parents 'LSGC1' and 'LSGC2'. The seed production plot is located at Lanchang, Pahang which is about 100 km east of Kuala Lumpur. This so called 'Lanchang Seed Garden' occupies an area of 1 ha and in May 2007, 1800 trees of 'LSGC1' and 600 trees of 'LSGC2' inbred parents were planted. The trees flowered two months later and hybridization work was then started. Freshly dehisced anthers from 'LSGC2' (paternal parent) hermaphrodite flowers were collected in glass vials and used for pollination of 'LSGC1' (maternal parent) flowers. The recipient flower must be mature, but the corolla tube must remain folded to prevent accidental outcrossing. To effect pollination, the closed petals of the recipient female flower are gently separated to expose the stigma. One anther is picked up from the vial with a pair of curved-tipped forceps and gently rubbed onto the stigma of the 'LSGC1' flower. A wax paper envelope is then placed over the pollinated flower. Both female and hermaphrodite flowers of 'LSGC1' were used for hybridization and in the latter, emasculation by peeling off the corolla tube with its attached stamens is necessary to prevent self-pollination. Female flowers used in hybridization have the advantage of obviating emasculation and the fruit carries more seed compared with hermaphrodite, but its seed will bear a higher percentage of female trees that is not usually preferred. Reciprocal crosses using 'LSGC2' as maternal parent were also experimented with. 'LSGC1' as maternal parent produced fruit that was nearly twice the weight of 'LSGC2' and concomitantly the seed number per fruit was also doubled (245 vs. 121 seed). However, 'LSGC2' yielded 50% more fruit than 'LSGC1' and this accounted for a net 36% higher seed based on per tree basis. Over 18 months, 'LSGC1' and 'LSGC2' produced 15,042 and 20,510 seeds/tree, respectively. Field trials of F1 hybrids from direct and reciprocal crosses showed that there were no significant differences in performance. Hence, 'Frangi' seed production currently uses a 2-way cross. Seed harvest began in December, 2007 and rose to a peak of 90 kg in February, 2009. The trees after 18 months were too tall for hybridization and the seed garden was replanted after two years of seed production.
Khairil J.M.,Malaysian Agrifood Corporation Berhad |
Munzir M.M.,Malaysian Agrifood Corporation Berhad
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014
Bacterial Dieback Disease (BDB) caused by Erwinia papayae was first recorded in Malaysia in 2003 and has since obliterated most of the papaya farms in the country. All commercial cultivars are susceptible and management practices by farmers have not been proven successful so far in managing this disease. Our observations are that the bacterium typically enters the host through wounds, and passes through the petiole into the green stem. The segment of the petiole attached to the lamina subsequently dries up and rots, resulting in a hanging leaf or 'flag-leaf' symptom. The area on the green stem around the diseased petiole often shows dark water-soaked streaks or lesions, and in severe infections the crown of the tree gradually withers and the tree collapses and dies within four to eight weeks. The Malaysian Agrifood Corporation Berhad (MAFC) had established a large papaya farm in Lanchang, Pahang in December 2006. The farm was initially disease-free and therefore a 'BDB exclusion programme' was imposed whereby traffic and visitors were restricted in entry to the farm. Those permitted entry were sanitized with shoe-dips and disinfectant tyre sprays. Despite these measures, BDB was detected in the farm in late 2009 requiring that a 'BDB containment programme' be initiated. An intensive surveillance programme to detect diseased plants was established, and all trees with mild symptoms had their diseased parts (leaves or fruits) promptly removed. Trees with severe infections are cut back to a meter from the ground and allowed to re-shoot. For the most serious infections, the whole tree including the root is removed and Calcium carbonate is sprinkled around the diseased area and copper fungicides are sprayed around the trees in the vicinity to help reduce spread. This paper discusses the disease dynamics, thresholds and some of the recent control measures being evaluated for prevention and mitigation of BDB, including thermal surgical treatment and the use of antibacterial compounds.
Wafa M.U.,Malaysian Agrifood Corporation Berhad
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014
The Malaysian Agrifood Corporation (MAFC) produces a petite papaya (500-800 g) from a new hybrid 'Frangi'. To improve fruit quality and investigate the possibility of producing premium organic papaya, cultivation under Rain Shelter (RS) was attempted. In this report, the cost of production under RS against open cultivation were compared as well as the tree and fruit quality characteristics. Trees under RS were taller with thinner stems and longer internodes (more etiolated under shade as expected), but came into bearing earlier and had higher yield because of better fruit set. Under dry conditions, diseases such as malformed top (Cladosporium) and fruit diseases such as brown blotch/anthracnose (Colletotrichum) were almost non-existent. Commercial papaya production under RS may be justified because of the higher marketable yield of clean, premium fruit, savings in inputs, greener cultivation and food safety, improved storability and fruit quality and higher prices expected from elite, including organic markets.
Malaysian Agrifood Corporation Berhad | Date: 2012-08-07
Paper, cardboard and goods made from these materials, namely, carton boxes, cardboard boxes, cardboard liners, cardboard dividers, cardboard nesting boxes; printed matter, namely, printed forms, printed certificates; pamphlets in the field of agriculture, marketing, sales, promotions; paper labels comprised of paper and food-safe plastic materials, namely, polypropylene and polyethylene; printed advertising boards of paper or cardboards; bags of paper and plastic bags for packaging; paper envelopes and pouches for packaging; packaging material made of starch-based materials in the nature of paper substitute for consumer products; plastic materials for packaging food and beverages, namely, food-safe plastic materials comprised of oriented polypropylene and low density polypropylene; printed products for packaging purposes, namely, food-safe kraft liner corrugated carton with outer-liner food-safe wax; stationery; stickers. Preserved, dried, and cooked fruits; crystallized fruits; frosted and frozen fruits; fruit salads; fruit jellies; canned fruits; fruit-based snack food; fruit peel; fruit pulp; jams, jellies, compotes; marmalade. Agricultural products and grains, namely, unprocessed grain, unprocessed seeds, unprocessed plant seedlings, unprocessed leaves, unprocessed stems and unprocessed roots, all for agricultural use; fresh agricultural grains for planting, fresh fruits. Fruit drinks; fruit juices; non-alcoholic fruit juice beverages; non-alcoholic fruit extracts used in the preparation of beverages; fruit nectars; concentrates for making soft drinks; preparations in the nature of syrups, extracts, essence for making beverages, namely, fruit drinks; powder-based fruit drinks; carbonated fruit drinks.