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Yeap S.K.,University Putra Malaysia | Beh B.K.,University Putra Malaysia | Ho W.Y.,University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus | Mohd Yusof H.,University Putra Malaysia | And 6 more authors.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2015

Legumes have previously been reported with hypolipidemic effect caused by the presence of flavonoid. This study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant and hypolipidemic effects of fermented mung bean on hypercholesterolemic mice. Blood from all mice was collected and subjected to serum lipid and liver profiles biochemical analysis and quantitative RT-PCR for atherosclerosis related gene expressions. Besides, livers were collected for antioxidant assays and histopathology evaluation. Fermented mung bean was found to reduce the level of serum lipid and liver enzyme profiles of hypercholesterolemic mice. Furthermore, liver antioxidant and nitric oxide levels were also significantly restored by fermented mung bean in a dosage dependent manner. The gene expression study indicated that Apoe and Bcl2a1a were upregulated while Npy and Vwf expressions were downregulated after the treatment. The effects of fermented mung bean were greater than nonfermented mung bean. These results indicated that fermented mung bean possessed antioxidants that lead to its hypolipidemic effect on hypercholesterolemic mice. © 2015 Swee Keong Yeap et al. Source

Yeap S.K.,University Putra Malaysia | Beh B.K.,University Putra Malaysia | Kong J.,Aning Biotech Corporation Sdn Bhd. | Ho W.Y.,University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus | And 7 more authors.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2014

Fermented red yeast rice has been traditionally consumed as medication in Asian cuisine. This study aimed to determine the in vivo hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects of fermented red yeast rice water extract produced using Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) Monascus purpureus strains in mice fed with high cholesterol diet. Absence of monacolin-k, lower level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), higher content of total amino acids, and antioxidant activities were detected in MARDI fermented red yeast rice water extract (MFRYR). In vivo MFRYR treatment on hypercholesterolemic mice recorded similar lipid lowering effect as commercial red yeast rice extract (CRYR) as it helps to reduce the elevated serum liver enzyme and increased the antioxidant levels in liver. This effect was also associated with the upregulation of apolipoproteins-E and inhibition of Von Willebrand factor expression. In summary, MFRYR enriched in antioxidant and amino acid without monacolin-k showed similar hypocholesterolemic effect as CRYR that was rich in monacolin-k and GABA. © 2014 Swee Keong Yeap et al. Source

Ho W.Y.,University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus | Beh B.K.,University Putra Malaysia | Lim K.L.,University Tunku Abdul Rahman | Mohamad N.E.,University Putra Malaysia | And 8 more authors.
RSC Advances | Year: 2015

Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. (Rutaceae), a common spice, has been traditionally used to reduce inflammation and hepatitis. The present study aimed to reveal the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity as well as the regulation of cytochrome P450 levels elicited by aqueous extracts of M. koenigii leaves in response to paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in BALB/c mice. Liver toxicity was induced by an overdose of paracetamol followed by treatment with a M. koenigii leaf aqueous extract. The levels of serum liver markers, liver antioxidants, inflammatory markers and liver cytochrome P450 2E1 were quantified after 14 days of treatment. Histopathological analysis of the liver was also carried out. In vitro antioxidant levels and phenolic acid characterization were also performed. The extracts (50 and 200 mg kg-1 body weight) effectively restored the serum liver profiles (alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase), liver antioxidant levels (superoxide dismutase, glutathione and ferric reducing ability of plasma) and inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor alpha, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells and nitric oxide) to healthy levels in a dosage dependent manner. The level of liver cytochrome P450 2E1 was also lowered in the extract treated groups. Histopathological assessment showed that treatment with 200 mg kg-1 of the M. koenigii aqueous extract was able to reduce liver necrosis in mice fed paracetamol. Gallic acid concentration was the highest among all the phenolic acids detected in the extract. These results suggested that the M. koenigii aqueous extract, which possessed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, can be used as a potential treatment for liver diseases caused by oxidative stress. © The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Mohd Ali N.,University Putra Malaysia | Mohd Yusof H.,University Putra Malaysia | Long K.,Malaysian Agriculture Research Development Institute | Yeap S.K.,University Putra Malaysia | And 5 more authors.
BioMed Research International | Year: 2013

Mung bean is a hepatoprotective agent in dietary supplements. Fermentation and germination processes are well recognized to enhance the nutritional values especially the concentration of active compounds such as amino acids and GABA of various foods. In this study, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of freeze-dried mung bean and amino-acid- and GABA-enriched germinated and fermented mung bean aqueous extracts were compared. Liver superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), nitric oxide (NO) levels, and serum biochemical profile such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), triglycerides (TG), and cholesterol and histopathological changes were examined for the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of these treatments. Germinated and fermented mung bean have recorded an increase of 27.9 and 7.3 times of GABA and 8.7 and 13.2 times of amino acid improvement, respectively, as compared to normal mung bean. Besides, improvement of antioxidant levels, serum markers, and NO level associated with better histopathological evaluation indicated that these extracts could promote effective recovery from hepatocyte damage. These results suggested that freeze-dried, germinated, and fermented mung bean aqueous extracts enriched with amino acids and GABA possessed better hepatoprotective effect as compared to normal mung bean. © 2013 Norlaily Mohd Ali et al. Source

Abidin R.A.Z.,Malaysian Agriculture Research Development Institute | Seman Z.A.,Malaysian Agriculture Research Development Institute | Razak S.A.,Malaysian Agriculture Research Development Institute | Abdullah N.,Malaysian Agriculture Research Development Institute | Bakar U.K.A.,Malaysian Agriculture Research Development Institute
Jurnal Teknologi | Year: 2015

In silico analysis provides an economical approach in the development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers through utilization of genome sequences generated from high throughput sequencing platform. In this study, we present the potential SSR markers of maize mining from its reference genome of cultivar B73. In total, 94, 534 putative SSRs were detected in maize reference genome B73. Dinucleotide repeats (57.00%) were found the most frequent repeats in maize genome, followed by trinucleotide (38.90%), tetranucleotide (2.77%), pentanucleotide (0.85%) and hexanucleotide (0.48%) repeats. A total of 2239 primer pairs were successfully designed for experimental validation. Of these, 99 SSR markers were selected for optimization and only 71(71.71%) SSR primer pairs produced DNA amplification products and therefore validated as developed SSR markers for maize. This in silico approach through genome wide analysis of maize genome not only provides rapid discovery and cost effective methods in SSR markers development but also will act as useful tool for genetic diversity and marker-trait association in maize. © 2015 Penerbit UTM Press. All rights reserved. Source

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