Malaysian Agriculture Research and Development Institute MARDI

George Town, Malaysia

Malaysian Agriculture Research and Development Institute MARDI

George Town, Malaysia
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Miah G.,University Putra Malaysia | Rafii M.Y.,University Putra Malaysia | Ismail M.R.,University Putra Malaysia | Puteh A.B.,University Putra Malaysia | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2013

Blast disease caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae is the most severe diseases of rice. Using classical plant breeding techniques, breeders have developed a number of blast resistant cultivars adapted to different rice growing regions worldwide. However, the rice industry remains threatened by blast disease due to the instability of blast fungus. Recent advances in rice genomics provide additional tools for plant breeders to improve rice production systems that would be environmentally friendly. This article outlines the application of conventional breeding, tissue culture and DNA-based markers that are used for accelerating the development of blast resistant rice cultivars. The best way for controlling the disease is to incorporate both qualitative and quantitative genes in resistant variety. Through conventional and molecular breeding many blast-resistant varieties have been developed. Conventional breeding for disease resistance is tedious, time consuming and mostly dependent on environment as compare to molecular breeding particularly marker assisted selection, which is easier, highly efficient and precise. For effective management of blast disease, breeding work should be focused on utilizing the broad spectrum of resistance genes and pyramiding genes and quantitative trait loci. Marker assisted selection provides potential solution to some of the problems that conventional breeding cannot resolve. In recent years, blast resistant genes have introgressed into Luhui 17, G46B, Zhenshan 97B, Jin 23B, CO39, IR50, Pusa1602 and Pusa1603 lines through marker assisted selection. Introduction of exotic genes for resistance induced the occurrence of new races of blast fungus, therefore breeding work should be concentrated in local resistance genes. This review focuses on the conventional breeding to the latest molecular progress in blast disease resistance in rice. This update information will be helpful guidance for rice breeders to develop durable blast resistant rice variety through marker assisted selection. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Ahmed F.,University Putra Malaysia | Rafii M.Y.,University Putra Malaysia | Ismail M.R.,University Putra Malaysia | Juraimi A.S.,University Putra Malaysia | And 4 more authors.
BioMed Research International | Year: 2013

Submergence or flood is one of the major harmful abiotic stresses in the low-lying countries and crop losses due to waterlogging are considerably high. Plant breeding techniques, conventional or genetic engineering, might be an effective and economic way of developing crops to grow successfully in waterlogged condition. Marker assisted selection (MAS) is a new and more effective approach which can identify genomic regions of crops under stress, which could not be done previously. The discovery of comprehensive molecular linkage maps enables us to do the pyramiding of desirable traits to improve in submergence tolerance through MAS. However, because of genetic and environmental interaction, too many genes encoding a trait, and using undesirable populations the mapping of QTL was hampered to ensure proper growth and yield under waterlogged conditions Steady advances in the field of genomics and proteomics over the years will be helpful to increase the breeding programs which will help to accomplish a significant progress in the field crop variety development and also improvement in near future. Waterlogging response of soybean and major cereal crops, as rice, wheat, barley, and maize and discovery of QTL related with tolerance of waterlogging, development of resistant variety, and, in addition, future prospects have also been discussed. © 2013 F. Ahmed et al.

Hashemi F.S.G.,University Putra Malaysia | Rafii M.Y.,University Putra Malaysia | Ismail M.R.,University Putra Malaysia | Mahmud T.M.M.,University Putra Malaysia | And 6 more authors.
Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences | Year: 2013

One of the most valuable traits in high-quality rice is aroma or fragrance, which is important for consumer preference and global trade. Aromatic rice is unique and recognized as a badge of honor and an asset in many countries. Among more than 100 volatile components, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) is believed to be the main aromatic compound in rice. The principal gene contributing to 2AP is badh2, which was mapped on chromosome 8 by map-based cloning. A deletion in this gene truncates and makes non-functional the BADH2 protein. Thus, the mutant badh2 transcript leads to 2AP accumulation in aromatic rice. The discovery of the gene has led to the clarification of the biochemistry, molecular genetics and evolution of fragrant rice. The breeding of fragrant rice is now faster because of marker assisted selection (MAS), which is based on recognized genes. For a more extensive elucidation of all effective and fundamental factors contributing to rice fragrance, it is essential to further explore target quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and their inheritance and locations. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Ahmed I.A.,International Islamic University Malaysia | Mikail M.A.,International Islamic University Malaysia | Bin Ibrahim M.,International Islamic University Malaysia | Bin Hazali N.,International Islamic University Malaysia | And 5 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

Baccaurea angulata is an underutilised tropical fruit of Borneo Island of Malaysia. The effect of solvents was examined on yield, total phenolic (TPC), total flavonoids (TFC), total carotene content (TCC), free radical scavenging activities and lipid peroxidation inhibition activities. The results indicated that the pulp (edible portion) had the highest yield, while methanol extracts were significantly (p < 0.01) found to contain higher TPC, TFC and TCC than phosphate buffered saline (PBS) extracts for all the fruits parts. The methanol extracts also showed remarkable antiradical activity and significant lipid peroxidation inhibition activities, with their IC50 results highly comparable to that of commercial blueberry. The variations in the results among the extracts suggest different interactions, such as negative or antagonistic (interference), additive and synergistic effect interactions. The study indicated that B. angulata like other underutilised tropical fruits contained remarkable primary antioxidants. Thus, the fruit has the potential to be sources of antioxidant components. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Aimi N.N.,International Islamic University Malaysia | Anuar H.,International Islamic University Malaysia | Manshor M.R.,International Islamic University Malaysia | Manshor M.R.,Malaysian Agriculture Research and Development Institute MARDI | And 2 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2014

Awareness on the advantages of natural fibers stimulates the interest of researchers to use them as reinforcement in polymer composites for robust application. Therefore, investigation on optimizing the impact property of durian skin fiber (DSF) reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites was carried out to determine the effect of DSF content, fiber size and maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP) content. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used in the design of experiments and in the analysis of results. The optimized value for the maximum impact strength of PP-DSF composite was found at 50wt% DSF content and fiber size range of 250-500μm with 0wt% MAPP. The maximum impact property for PP-DSF composite was 10.66kJ/m2. From the analysis of variance (ANOVA), fiber content significantly affects the strength of PP-DSF composites, followed by the fiber size and MAPP content. The P-value of the model of experiment is less than 0.05 and the determination coefficient (R2) is nearly 1 which suggested that the model is significant and implies on the precision and processability in the production. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Farahzety A.B.,Malaysian Agriculture Research and Development Institute MARDI | Illias M.K.,Malaysian Agriculture Research and Development Institute MARDI | Siti Aishah H.,University Putra Malaysia
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

The effects of fertilizer sources on the nutritional quality and yield of cauliflower grown under protective structure were determined. The fertilizers sources were from three different compost consisting of oil palm empty fruit bunches compost (EFBC), chrysanthemum residues compost (CRC) and soybean wastes compost (SWC) and two different vermicomposts namely green wastes vermicompost (GWV) and vegetable waste vermicompost (VWV) with inorganic fertilizer NPK (12:12:17) as a control treatment. The amount of fertilizer applied was calculated based on 180 kg h-1 of nitrogen. Application of SWC and EFBC resulted into slightly higher nitrogen content in cauliflower curds. Phosphorus and potassium contents were not significantly different among the treatments. Whereas, magnesium and zinc were increased and slightly higher in organics compared to chemically fertilized plant with curds of EFBC having the highest values. The curds of VWV can be harvested 7 days earlier than plants fertilized with inorganic fertilizer although the yield was similar with EFBC and inorganic plants. Highest yield (12.75 t/ha) was obtained by the application of VWV although statistically no differences were observed with inorganic fertilizer plants and EFBC. Cauliflower ascorbic acid was also higher in VWV and EFBC.

Rashid J.I.A.,National University of Malaysia | Samat N.,Malaysian Agriculture Research and Development Institute MARDI | Yusoff W.M.W.,National University of Malaysia
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2011

Optimization of three parameters, temperature (25-35°C), moisture content (40% (w/v)-60% (w/v) and inoculum sizes (5% (w/v)-l 5% (w/v) were investigated and optimized by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for optimal mannanase production by Aspergillus terreus SUK-1. A second order polynomial equation was fitted and the optimum condition was established. The result showed that the moisture content was a critical factor in terms of its effect on mannanase. The optimum condition for mannanase production was predicted at 42.86% (w/v) initial moisture (31 °C) temperature and 5.5% (w/v) inoculum size. The predicted optimal parameter were tested in the laboratory and the mannanase activity 45.12 IU mL -1 were recorded to be closed to the predicted value (44.80 IU mL -1). Under the optimized SSF condition (31 °C, 42.86% moisture content (w/v) and 5.5% inoculum size (w/v)), the maximum mannanase production was to prevail about 45.12 IUmL -1 compare to before optimized (30°C, 50% moisture content (w/v) and 10% inoculum size (w/v)) was only 34.42 IU mL -1. © 2011 Asian Network for Scientific Information.

Rashid J.I.A.,National University of Malaysia | Samat N.,Malaysian Agriculture Research and Development Institute MARDI | Yusoff W.M.W.,National University of Malaysia
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2013

Microbial mannanases have become biotechnologically important in industry but their application is limited due to high production cost. In presents study, the extraction of mannanase from fermented Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) in the Solid State Fermentation (SSF) was optimized. Local isolate of Aspergillus terreus SUK-1 was grown on PKC in (SSF) using column bioreactor. The optimum condition were achieved after two washes of fermented PKC by adding of 10% glycerol (v/v) soaked for 10% at the room temperature with solvent to ratio, 1:5 (v/v). © 2013 Asian Network for Scientific Information.

Amin N.M.,Malaysian Agriculture Research and Development Institute MARDI | Bunawan H.,Malaysian Agriculture Research and Development Institute MARDI | Bakar N.T.A.,Malaysian Agriculture Research and Development Institute MARDI
Advances in Environmental Biology | Year: 2014

A plant defensin, ctd1, was isolated from the tropical forage legume, Butterfly Pea (Clitoria ternatea L.). The full-length cDNA consists of a 228 bp open reading frame with 75 amino acids, of which the N-terminal 28 amino acids constitute the signal peptide and 47 amino acids constitute the mature peptide. A characteristic of this protein is eight cysteine residues forming four disulphide bridges (Cys14-Cys35, Cys20-Cys41, Cys24-Cys43 and Cys3-Cys47) to stabilize the mature peptide. The phylogenetic based on the mature peptide was inferred using neighbor-joining method found Ctd1 clustered with other Phaseoleae species. The γ-core motif identified in this protein highlights the important molecules of Ctd1 peptides and hence appears as a suitable candidate for deployment in transgenic crops for disease resistance. © 2014 AENSI Publisher All rights reserved.

Abdullah A.H.,University Malaysia Perlis | Adorn A.H.,University Malaysia Perlis | Shakaff A.Y.Md.,University Malaysia Perlis | Ahmad M.N.,University Malaysia Perlis | And 3 more authors.
Sensor Letters | Year: 2011

Aromatic rice is a variety of rice with good cooking qualities such as nice aroma and flavour. It is pricier because it is only suitable to be cultivated in regions with specific climatic and soil conditions. Presently, the aromatic rice quality classification uses either Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Near Infrared (NIR) or Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA). The rice aroma can also be classified using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), human panels or Electronic Nose (e-nose). The training for the human pan-els is lengthy, but the results are comparable to those using the said instrument analysis. However, the use of human panels has significant drawbacks such as fatigue, inconsistent and time consuming. This paper presents the development of a new cost-effective, portable, e-nose prototype with embedded data processing capabilities for aromatic rice classification. This system is intended to be used to assist the human panels. The e-nose utilises Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for data analysis. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was used to classify the unknown samples. The results show that the e-nose is able to successfully classify the aromatic rice with high accuracy. Copyright © 2011 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved. Copyright © 2011 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.

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