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Ahmed F.,University Putra Malaysia | Rafii M.Y.,University Putra Malaysia | Ismail M.R.,University Putra Malaysia | Juraimi A.S.,University Putra Malaysia | And 4 more authors.
BioMed Research International

Submergence or flood is one of the major harmful abiotic stresses in the low-lying countries and crop losses due to waterlogging are considerably high. Plant breeding techniques, conventional or genetic engineering, might be an effective and economic way of developing crops to grow successfully in waterlogged condition. Marker assisted selection (MAS) is a new and more effective approach which can identify genomic regions of crops under stress, which could not be done previously. The discovery of comprehensive molecular linkage maps enables us to do the pyramiding of desirable traits to improve in submergence tolerance through MAS. However, because of genetic and environmental interaction, too many genes encoding a trait, and using undesirable populations the mapping of QTL was hampered to ensure proper growth and yield under waterlogged conditions Steady advances in the field of genomics and proteomics over the years will be helpful to increase the breeding programs which will help to accomplish a significant progress in the field crop variety development and also improvement in near future. Waterlogging response of soybean and major cereal crops, as rice, wheat, barley, and maize and discovery of QTL related with tolerance of waterlogging, development of resistant variety, and, in addition, future prospects have also been discussed. © 2013 F. Ahmed et al. Source

Rashid J.I.A.,National University of Malaysia | Samat N.,Malaysian Agriculture Research and Development Institute MARDI | Yusoff W.M.W.,National University of Malaysia
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences

Optimization of three parameters, temperature (25-35°C), moisture content (40% (w/v)-60% (w/v) and inoculum sizes (5% (w/v)-l 5% (w/v) were investigated and optimized by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for optimal mannanase production by Aspergillus terreus SUK-1. A second order polynomial equation was fitted and the optimum condition was established. The result showed that the moisture content was a critical factor in terms of its effect on mannanase. The optimum condition for mannanase production was predicted at 42.86% (w/v) initial moisture (31 °C) temperature and 5.5% (w/v) inoculum size. The predicted optimal parameter were tested in the laboratory and the mannanase activity 45.12 IU mL -1 were recorded to be closed to the predicted value (44.80 IU mL -1). Under the optimized SSF condition (31 °C, 42.86% moisture content (w/v) and 5.5% inoculum size (w/v)), the maximum mannanase production was to prevail about 45.12 IUmL -1 compare to before optimized (30°C, 50% moisture content (w/v) and 10% inoculum size (w/v)) was only 34.42 IU mL -1. © 2011 Asian Network for Scientific Information. Source

Hashemi F.S.G.,University Putra Malaysia | Rafii M.Y.,University Putra Malaysia | Ismail M.R.,University Putra Malaysia | Mahmud T.M.M.,University Putra Malaysia | And 6 more authors.
Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences

One of the most valuable traits in high-quality rice is aroma or fragrance, which is important for consumer preference and global trade. Aromatic rice is unique and recognized as a badge of honor and an asset in many countries. Among more than 100 volatile components, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) is believed to be the main aromatic compound in rice. The principal gene contributing to 2AP is badh2, which was mapped on chromosome 8 by map-based cloning. A deletion in this gene truncates and makes non-functional the BADH2 protein. Thus, the mutant badh2 transcript leads to 2AP accumulation in aromatic rice. The discovery of the gene has led to the clarification of the biochemistry, molecular genetics and evolution of fragrant rice. The breeding of fragrant rice is now faster because of marker assisted selection (MAS), which is based on recognized genes. For a more extensive elucidation of all effective and fundamental factors contributing to rice fragrance, it is essential to further explore target quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and their inheritance and locations. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Miah G.,University Putra Malaysia | Rafii M.Y.,University Putra Malaysia | Ismail M.R.,University Putra Malaysia | Puteh A.B.,University Putra Malaysia | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Biology Reports

Blast disease caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae is the most severe diseases of rice. Using classical plant breeding techniques, breeders have developed a number of blast resistant cultivars adapted to different rice growing regions worldwide. However, the rice industry remains threatened by blast disease due to the instability of blast fungus. Recent advances in rice genomics provide additional tools for plant breeders to improve rice production systems that would be environmentally friendly. This article outlines the application of conventional breeding, tissue culture and DNA-based markers that are used for accelerating the development of blast resistant rice cultivars. The best way for controlling the disease is to incorporate both qualitative and quantitative genes in resistant variety. Through conventional and molecular breeding many blast-resistant varieties have been developed. Conventional breeding for disease resistance is tedious, time consuming and mostly dependent on environment as compare to molecular breeding particularly marker assisted selection, which is easier, highly efficient and precise. For effective management of blast disease, breeding work should be focused on utilizing the broad spectrum of resistance genes and pyramiding genes and quantitative trait loci. Marker assisted selection provides potential solution to some of the problems that conventional breeding cannot resolve. In recent years, blast resistant genes have introgressed into Luhui 17, G46B, Zhenshan 97B, Jin 23B, CO39, IR50, Pusa1602 and Pusa1603 lines through marker assisted selection. Introduction of exotic genes for resistance induced the occurrence of new races of blast fungus, therefore breeding work should be concentrated in local resistance genes. This review focuses on the conventional breeding to the latest molecular progress in blast disease resistance in rice. This update information will be helpful guidance for rice breeders to develop durable blast resistant rice variety through marker assisted selection. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Rashid J.I.A.,National University of Malaysia | Samat N.,Malaysian Agriculture Research and Development Institute MARDI | Yusoff W.M.W.,National University of Malaysia
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences

Microbial mannanases have become biotechnologically important in industry but their application is limited due to high production cost. In presents study, the extraction of mannanase from fermented Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) in the Solid State Fermentation (SSF) was optimized. Local isolate of Aspergillus terreus SUK-1 was grown on PKC in (SSF) using column bioreactor. The optimum condition were achieved after two washes of fermented PKC by adding of 10% glycerol (v/v) soaked for 10% at the room temperature with solvent to ratio, 1:5 (v/v). © 2013 Asian Network for Scientific Information. Source

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