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Bujang A.S.,Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute MARDI | Bujang A.S.,Iowa State University | Bern C.J.,Iowa State University | Brumm T.J.,Iowa State University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2016

Malaysia is a 'newly-industrialized' country that relies heavily on its exports of oil and is a major producer of palm oil and rubber. Due to favorable geographical attributes, renewable resources such as hydroelectric, solar and biomass provides attractive alternatives to dependence on fossil fuels. Fuel diversification policies were introduced in 1999 to promote the use of renewable energy, particularly in electricity generation. Diversification of energy resources are one of the main pillars in the new Malaysia plan. Other than hydroelectric and solar energy, biomass from palm oil and other agricultural practices including fruit crops can be utilized to produce energy and renewable resources. Although existing policies point towards integration of sustainable energy resources, a more aggressive approach is needed to substantially offset fossil-fuel consumption. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Sairi M.,Curtin University Australia | Sairi M.,Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute MARDI | Arrigan D.W.M.,Curtin University Australia
Talanta | Year: 2014

The behaviour of protonated ractopamine (RacH+) at an array of micro-interfaces between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (micro-ITIES) was investigated via cyclic voltammetry (CV) and linear sweep stripping voltammetry (LSSV). The micro-ITIES array was formed at silicon membranes containing 30 pores of radius 11.09±0.12 μm and pore centre-to-centre separation of 18.4±2.1 times the pore radius. CV shows that RacH+ transferred across the water |1,6-dichlorohexane μITIES array at a very positive applied potential, close to the upper limit of the potential window. Nevertheless, CV was used in the estimation of some of the drug's thermodynamic parameters, such as the formal transfer potential and the Gibbs transfer energy. LSSV was implemented by pre-concentration of the drug, into the organic phase, followed by voltammetric detection, based on the back-transfer of RacH+ from the organic to aqueous phase. Under optimised pre-concentration and detection conditions, a limit of detection of 0.1 μM was achieved. In addition, the impact of substances such as sugar, ascorbic acid, metal ions, amino acid and urea on RacH+ detection was assessed. The detection of RacH+ in artificial serum indicated that the presence of serum protein interferes in the detection signal, so that sample deproteinisation is required for feasible bioanalytical applications. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Ng S.-K.,UCSI University | Jessie L.-Y.L.,UCSI University | Tan C.-P.,University Putra Malaysia | Long K.,Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute MARDI | Nyam K.-L.,UCSI University
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society | Year: 2013

In order to improve the quality and protect against degradation, kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil was microencapsulated by using spray drying. The microencapsulated kenaf seed oil (MKSO) was then stored at 65 C for 24 days, the changes of fatty acids and bioactive compounds were examined every six days. Bulk (unencapsulated) kenaf seed oil was used as a control and was compared to the MKSO. The fatty acids and phytosterols compositions were determined by using gas chromatography, while tocopherols and phenolic acids of microencapsulated kenaf seed oil were determined by using high performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that there was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in bioactive compounds in kenaf seed oil while the bioactive compounds in MKSO were maintained in a stable condition upon accelerated storage. Microencapsulation was shown to protect kenaf seed oil against oxidation, as well as preventing the degradation and/or loss of bioactive compounds in kenaf seed oil. © 2013 AOCS. Source


Geesink G.,University of New England of Australia | Sujang S.,Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute MARDI | Koohmaraie M.,King Saud University | Koohmaraie M.,Forest Laboratories
Meat Science | Year: 2011

Lamb longissimus muscle (n= 6) sections were cooked at different times post mortem (prerigor, at rigor, 1. day. p.m., and 7. days. p.m.) using two cooking methods. Using a boiling waterbath, samples were either cooked to a core temperature of 70 °C or boiled for 3. h. The latter method was meant to reflect the traditional cooking method employed in countries where preparation of prerigor meat is practiced. The time postmortem at which the meat was prepared had a large effect on the tenderness (shear force) of the meat (P < 0.01). Cooking prerigor and at rigor meat to 70 °C resulted in higher shear force values than their post rigor counterparts at 1 and 7. days. p.m. (9.4 and 9.6 vs. 7.2 and 3.7. kg, respectively). The differences in tenderness between the treatment groups could be largely explained by a difference in contraction status of the meat after cooking and the effect of ageing on tenderness. Cooking pre and at rigor meat resulted in severe muscle contraction as evidenced by the differences in sarcomere length of the cooked samples. Mean sarcomere lengths in the pre and at rigor samples ranged from 1.05 to 1.20 μm. The mean sarcomere length in the post rigor samples was 1.44 μm. Cooking for 3. h at 100 °C did improve the tenderness of pre and at rigor prepared meat as compared to cooking to 70 °C, but not to the extent that ageing did. It is concluded that additional intervention methods are needed to improve the tenderness of prerigor cooked meat. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Saad M.J.,Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute MARDI
Journal of Sustainability Science and Management | Year: 2012

The manufacturing of kenaf core fibre - polypropylene composites with treated and non-treated maleated polypropylene (MAPP) was fabricated. Commercial MAPP (epolene 43) was used to determine MAPP's effectiveness as a coupling agent for kenaf fibre-composites. The mixturing between kenaf, PP and MAPP was done in an internal mixer machine to produce a pellet. A Kenaf core- polypropylene composite sample was manufactured using a compression moulding method on the kenaf and polypropylene (PP) pellets. The tensile, flexural and impact of the epolene 43 treated composite samples were better than those of the untreated composites. Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) proved that the interfacial region of treated composite board shows good interaction among kenaf's wood fibre and PP components. © Universiti Malaysia Terengganu Publisher. Source

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