Shasthri S.,International Islamic University Malaysia |
Shasthri S.,University of Selangor |
Kausalyah V.,University Technology of MARA |
Shah Q.H.,International Islamic University Malaysia |
And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Crashworthiness
A parametric study is undertaken to ascertain the sensitivity of the child restraint system (CRS) design, with respect to oblique side impact at standard velocities in consideration of intrusion. A hybrid model is constructed using a combination of both finite elements and multi-body ellipsoids where a three-year-old Hybrid III child dummy is placed inside a CRS and restrained with a harness system. A prescribed structural motion simulation of a side-impact crash is carried out based on experimental data. Validation is performed and the model is shown to be acceptable for common standard injury responses as well as being greatly economical in terms of computational processing time. A plan of experiments is prepared based on the Latin hypercube sampling for six parameters involving two different crash velocities. The head injury criterion (HIC) is considered as the response in this study. The model is adapted for intrusion and oblique impact. Response surface models are shown to be suitable for the mathematical modelling of the problem and Student's t-test is used to assess the parameter sensitivity both qualitatively and quantitatively. Most of the parameters are seen to have greater significance for wider principle direction of force (PDOF) angles above 60°. In general, a gradual decrease in significance is observed for parameters with increasing impact velocity, with the notable exception of the impact angle. The impact angle is shown to most notably affect the HIC especially from PDOF angles 45°-75°, identified as the critical impact angle range. The far side shoulder harness slack parameter is also found to be significant in reducing the HIC. © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Source
Zulkipli Z.H.,Malaysia Institute of Road Safety Research MIROS |
Abdul Rahmat A.M.,Malaysia Institute of Road Safety Research MIROS |
Mohd Faudzi S.A.,Malaysia Institute of Road Safety Research MIROS |
Paiman N.F.,Malaysia Institute of Road Safety Research MIROS |
And 2 more authors.
Accident Analysis and Prevention
This study presents an analysis of crash characteristics of motorcyclists who sustained spinal injuries in motorcycle crashes. The aim of the study is to identify the salient crash characteristics that would help explain spinal injury risks for motorcyclists. Data were retrospectively collected from police case reports that were archived at MIROS from year 2005 to 2007. The data were categorized into two subcategories; the first group was motorcycle crashes with spinal injury (case) and the second group was motorcycle crashes without spinal injury (control). A total of 363 motorcyclists with spinal injury and 873 motorcyclists without spinal injury were identified and analyzed. Descriptive analysis and multivariate analysis were performed in order to determine the odds of each characteristic in contributing to spinal injury. Single vehicle crash, collision with fixed objects and crash configuration were found to have significant influence on motorcyclists in sustaining spinal injury (p < 0.05). Although relatively few than other impact configurations, the rear-end impacted motorcyclist shows the highest risk of spinal injury. Helmets have helped to reduce head injury but they did not seem to offer corresponding protection for the spine in the study. With a growing number of young motorcyclists, further efforts are needed to find effective measures to help reduce the crash incidents and severity of spinal injury. In sum, the study provides some insights on some vital crash characteristics associated with spinal injury that can be further investigated to determine the appropriate counter-measures and prevention strategies to reduce spinal injury. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source