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Ng L.C.,University of Malaysia, Terengganu | Sariah M.,University Putra Malaysia | Radziah O.,University Putra Malaysia | Zainal Abidin M.A.,University Putra Malaysia | Sariam O.,Malaysia Agriculture Research and Development Institute
Compost Science and Utilization

In aerobic rice cultivation systems, compost mulching and incorporation are important to rehabilitate the soil. Microbial-fortified compost is increasingly accepted as a safe approach in agro-waste management to recycling of crop residuals in agriculture soil and also to promote growth and suppress disease. This study aims to examine the stability and viability of the selected plant growth-promoting microorganisms (PGPM) in rice straw compost (RSC) over incubation period and its bio-efficacy in promoting rice (Oryza sativa) plant growth, productivity, soil health, and controlling of Pyricularia oryzae in aerobic cultivation conditions. Six selected PGPM: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (UPMP1), Corynebacterium agropyri (UPMP7), Enterobacter gergoviae (UPMP9), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (UPMS3), Trichoderma harzianum (UPMT1), and Trichoderma virens (UPMT2) were used as a consortium of microbial inoculants to develop the microbial-fortified rice straw compost (MRSC). The MRSC was incorporated into mineral soil used for aerobic rice cultivation and its bio-efficacy was evaluated at harvest. The viability of Trichoderma spp. found stabilized at 6.78-6.00 log cfu/g and declined for all the bacterial isolates. At harvest, soil amended with MRSC significantly increased in plant height, leaf area index, 1000 grain weight, and productivity. The MRSC amended plots had significant low in rice blast disease severity with area under disease progress curve (AUDCP) of 748.22 unit/square, as compared to control (1782.67 unit/square). The physicochemical and microbiological properties of soil amended with MRSC were improved at harvest. The application of MRSC has potential to improve plant growth, productivity, rice blast disease management, and soil health of rice under aerobic cultivation systems. © 2016 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Sarsaifi K.,University Putra Malaysia | Rosnina Y.,University Putra Malaysia | Ariff M.,University Putra Malaysia | Wahid H.,University Putra Malaysia | And 5 more authors.
Reproduction in Domestic Animals

Contents: This study was conducted to evaluate the response of Bali bulls (Bos javanicus) to different semen collection methods and their effects on fresh and post-thawed semen quality. The collection methods employed were electro-ejaculation (EE), transrectal massage (RM) and RM followed by EE (RM + EE). A total of 25 untrained Bali bulls (age between 2 and 4 years old) were subjected to the different semen collection methods. Fresh semen samples from all the 25 bulls were evaluated for volume, pH, general motility, live/dead ratio and abnormality using the conventional method. For fresh and frozen samples collected by EE and RM from 10 bulls, computer-assisted semen analysis system was used for precise quantitative measurement of motility, velocity and forward progression. Accucell photometer was used to measure sperm concentration in all samples, regardless fresh and frozen. Semen samples were obtained 100% of the attempts using EE, 84% using RM and 96% using RM + EE. There were no differences among the collection methods for fresh semen quality characteristics, including motility, morphology and viability, but pH and volume were higher for EE than RM and RM + EE. Higher sperm concentration was observed in semen collected by RM than the other two methods. Different age groups (2-3 and >3-4 years old) of the bulls did not show significant differences in volume, pH, sperm concentration, percentages in motility, live/dead ratio and normal sperm morphology. The quality of semen for general and progressive motility, VAP, VSL and VCL and acrosomal integrity after thawing was higher for RM than EE. In conclusion, Bali bulls appeared to respond best to EE and the combination of RM + EE than RM, as a method of semen collection, with a shorter time of stimulation required. Differences in age of the Bali bulls did not affect the semen quality. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

Widjaja W.P.,University Putra Malaysia | As A.A.,University Putra Malaysia | Bakar F.A.,University Putra Malaysia | Saari N.B.,University Putra Malaysia | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation

The concentration of biogenic amines, i.e., histamine, putrescine, and cadaverine were studied as indicators of Mystus nemurus muscle quality under different storage conditions, namely, ambient (28±2C), chilled (10±2C) and in iced (2±1C) temperature. The biogenic amine contents were found to correlate with the free amino acids contents. The level of biogenic amines increased in accordance with decreasing free amino acids during storage (P<0.05). The cadaverine level reached a peak, 186.24mg/g, after 24h at ambient temperature, 371.98mg/g after 10 days at 10C, and 385.49mg/g after 20 days at iced temperature. Unacceptable levels were reached after 12h at ambient, 8 days at 10C and 16 days at 2C. Putrescine increased at a slower rate than histamine and cadaverine. The present study demonstrated the potential of cadaverine production as a quality indicator of M. nemurus during storage. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Hanisa H.,University Putra Malaysia | Hanisa H.,Malaysia Agriculture Research and Development Institute | Mohd Azmi M.L.,University Putra Malaysia | Suhaila M.,University Putra Malaysia | Somchit M.N.,University Putra Malaysia
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences

Extracts of three different plant species; Curcuma longa L., Centella asiatica L. and Strobilanthes crispus L. which are used widely in Malaysian traditional medicine are investigated for antiviral activity against alpha-herpesvirus (pseudorabies virus). The methanol extract (ME) and aqueous extract (AE) were tested in three cell lines; African Green Monkey Kidney (Vero), Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK) and Rabbit Kidney (RK) cells, at non-cytotoxic concentrations. Assays were developed to determine the characteristics of anti pseudorabies virus (PrV) activities, as anti-viral attachment, anti-prophylactic and/or virucidal. All plant extracts showed marked virucidal ability and considerable prophylactic and anti-viral attachment activities. Plant ME always showed better antiviral activities than plant AE. Curcuma longa L. showed a better virucidal and prophylactic effect (with more than 70% cell viability at 25 μg/ml) for ME and AE. While Centella asiatica L. and Strobilanthes crispus L. were most active as anti-viral attachment agent with percent cell viability up to 60%. It was also found that the anti-viral activities were varies in different cell lines tested. Therefore, the extracts of all three plant species exhibited anti PrV and they could be further investigated for medical purposes. Source

Shaidatul Azdawiyah A.T.,Malaysia Agriculture Research and Development Institute | Sahibin A.R.,National University of Malaysia | Sahibin A.R.,Research Center for Tropical Climate Change System | Anizan I.,Research Center for Tropical Climate Change System
Malaysian Applied Biology

Weather plays a very important role in determining crop yields. There is a strong relationship between climate and crops. The growth requirements are different for every crop throughout the whole plant development process. Each crop and crop variety has specific climatic tolerances and optimal conditions. The objectives of this study were to determine the physico-chemical characteristics of soils for rice cultivation and the effects of climate towards rice yield through simulation using Decision Support System for Agro-technology Transfer ver 4.5 (DSSAT4.5). This study was carried out in Tanjung Karang, Selangor. Four plots with the size of 5 m x 5 m were planted with MR 219 seedlings. Three soil samples were taken from each plot at a depth of 0-20 cm for the upper layer and 20-40 cm for the second layer before planting activities. Physico-chemical characteristic of these soils such as particle size distribution, organic matter, bulk and true density, pH, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity and organic carbon contents were determined according to the standard methods. The soil texture in this area was silty clay for the upper layer and clay for the second layer. The percentage of soil organic matter was high at about 9.0% to 11.8%. Soil bulk density was in the range of 1.37 g cm-3 to 1.41 g cm-3, whereas the true density was between 2.5 g cm-3 and 2.75 g cm-3. Soil of this area was slightly acidic with pH value of about 5 to 6. Electrical conductivity recorded ranged from 2.13 mS cm-1 to 2.60 mS cm-1, whereas cation exchange capacity was between 13.5 meq/100 g to 15.5 meq/ 100 g. Percentage of organic carbon was higher in the upper layer at 2.07-2.74% than in the second layer at 1.25-1.73%. To obtain the yield, ten matured rice plants were randomly selected and harvested. Yield recorded was 5.75 tons ha-1 and the weight of 1000 grains was 24.8 g. Yield simulation by using DSSAT 4.5 crop simulation model, indicated that yield was projected to decrease slightly as the daily solar radiation and rainfall decreased, and slightly increased as the temperature increased. Source

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