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Zainun C.A.,Malaysia Agricultural Research and Development Institute
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is widely available in the local market and it is a popular fruit for dessert and served as fresh-cuts but it is a very versatile fruit with the potential of being processed into various food products of commercial value. Work has been done in MARDI regarding the utilisation of pineapple. Pineapple can be processed into products such as pulp, juice, beverages, jam, confectionery jelly, canned in syrup, fruit roll/leather, breaded, dehydrated candied, pickle, sauce, fruit fillings and powder. This paper highlights some of the potential products from mature and ripe pineapple and their processing techniques. These products have potential for commercialisation.

Rosly S.M.,Malaysia Agricultural Research and Development Institute | Shanmugavelu S.,Malaysia Agricultural Research and Development Institute | Murugaiyah M.,University Putra Malaysia | Hadijah H.,Malaysia Agricultural Research and Development Institute | And 3 more authors.
Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science | Year: 2011

A subchronic oral toxicity study was conducted to evaluate the safety of Morinda citrifolia in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. For this purpose, the fruit of Morinda citrifolia were oven dried and ground into powder form before incorporating into diet and fed to SD rats (10 males and 10 females per group) at dose levels of 2000 (low dose) and 5000 (high dose) mg/kg body weight/day for 13 weeks. Clinical observations were recorded, while body weight and feed consumption were measured throughout the study. At the end of the study, all the rats were subjected to a full necropsy. Their blood samples were collected for clinical pathology, whereas selected organs were weighed and tissues were preserved from all the animals. Total protein was found to be significantly lower (p<0.05) in male rats of all the treatment groups. Meanwhile, total white blood cells (3.96×10 3/μl) and spleen weight (0.14%) were found to be significantly lower (p<0.05) in female rats of the low dose group. Nevertheless, the differences observed were within the normal range of normal healthy rats that were considered to be not toxicological significance. It was concluded that the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for Morinda citrifolia was 5000 mg/kg body weight/day. © Universiti Putra Malaysia Press.

Loo J.L.,University Putra Malaysia | Khoramnia A.,University Putra Malaysia | Lai O.M.,University Putra Malaysia | Long K.,Malaysia Agricultural Research and Development Institute | Ghazali H.M.,University Putra Malaysia
Molecules | Year: 2014

Mycelium-bound lipase (MBL), from a locally isolated Geotrichum candidum strain, was produced and characterized as a natural immobilized lipase. A time course study of its lipolytic activity in 1 L liquid broth revealed the maximum MBL activity at 4 h for mycelium cells harvested after 54 h. The yield and specific activity of MBL were 3.87 g/L dry weight and 508.33 U/g protein, respectively, while less than 0.2 U/mL lipase activity was detected in the culture supernatant. Prolonged incubation caused release of the bound lipase into the growth medium. The growth pattern of G. candidum, and production and properties of MBL were not affected by the scale. The stability of mycelia harboring lipase (MBL), harvested and lyophilized after 54 h, studied at 4 °C depicted a loss of 4.3% and 30% in MBL activity after 1 and 8 months, while the activity of free lipase was totally lost after 14 days of storage. The MBL from G. candidum displayed high substrate selectivity for unsaturated fatty acids containing a cis-9 double bond, even in crude form. This unique specificity of MBL could be a direct, simple and inexpensive way in the fats and oil industry for the selective hydrolysis or transesterification of cis-9 fatty acid residues in natural triacylglycerols. © 2014 by the authors.

Tang Y.-Q.,University of Malaya | Jaganath I.B.,Malaysia Agricultural Research and Development Institute | Manikam R.,University of Malaya | Sekaran S.D.,University of Malaya
Nutrition and Cancer | Year: 2015

Tumor angiogenesis and metastasis are the major causes for high morbidity and mortality rates in cancer patient. Modulation on tumor angiogenesis and metastasis provides opportunities to halt progression of cancer. From our previous findings, Phyllanthus plant possesses antiproliferative effects on melanoma and prostate cancer cell lines and induction of apoptosis. The main aims of the present work were further investigated on the antimetastatic and antiangiogenic effects on cancer cells (MeWo and PC-3) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) of 4 Phyllanthus species (P.amarus, P.niruri, P.urinaria and P.watsonii). Phyllanthus extracts significantly inhibited cell adhesion, migration, invasion, and transendothelial migration activities of cancer (MeWo and PC-3) cells in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05) by cell-matrix adhesion, Transwell migration, invasion, and transendothelial migration assays. Phyllanthus extracts were exhibited low cytotoxicity on HUVECs up to a concentration of 500.0 g/ml by MTS reduction assay. Phyllanthus extracts also exhibited antiangiogenic effects through inhibition of migration, invasion, and microcapillary like-tube structure formation in HUVECs. These observations were due to alteration in activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -2, -7, -9, and -26 in treated-endothelial and cancer cells by zymographies. These findings suggest that Phyllanthus plant has the potential to inhibit tumour metastasis and angiogenesis through the suppression of MMP enzymes. Copyright © 2015, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Hadijah H.,Malaysia Agricultural Research and Development Institute | Norazlanshah H.,International Islamic University Malaysia | Muhammad I.,International Islamic University Malaysia | Roowi S.,Malaysia Agricultural Research and Development Institute
International Food Research Journal | Year: 2015

The interest in dietary antioxidants which are mainly found in fruits, has prompted research in the field of commercial high antioxidant juice for healthy purposes. Fruits also are rich with antioxidants that help in reducing of degenerative diseases such as cancer, arthritis, cardiovascular disease and inflammation. Based on the health claims from the natural antioxidants, a new healthy juice called Mixed Fruit Juice (MFJ) has been developed by using three combinations of local fruits (soursop, mango and kasturi lime). In order to promote the commercial use of this product, the safety evaluation is needed to be carried out. The 28-days repeated toxicity test has been conducted in female and male rats for pre-clinical safety assessment prior to human study. There was no mortality observed when varying doses of the MFJ (5, 10 and 20%) administered to all rats. Hematological analysis showed no significant differences in most parameters examined. There were no significant changes observed in the liver and kidney functions tests of all treated-rats as compared to control normal rats. Furthermore, lipid profiles and blood glucose level were also within the normal range as noted in control rats. The present data demonstrate that the supplementation of MFJ did not produce adverse effects on the body system of experimental rats. This is the first documented report on the safety assessment of MFJ in rats.

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