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Bāndarban, Bangladesh

Fuehrer H.-P.,Medical University of Vienna | Fuehrer H.-P.,Malaria Research Initiative Bandarban | Igel P.,Malaria Research Initiative Bandarban | Igel P.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Auer H.,Medical University of Vienna
Parasitology Research | Year: 2011

Capillaria hepatica (syn. for Calodium hepaticum) is a zoonotic nematode parasitizing in the livers of rodents as main hosts and in numerous other mammals including humans. It is the causative agent of the rare conditions of hepatic capillariosis and spurious C. hepatica infections in humans. In this review, 163 reported cases of infestations with this parasite (72 reports of hepatic capillariosis, 13 serologically confirmed infestations and 78 observations of spurious infections) are summarized with an overview on the distribution, symptoms, pathology, diagnosis, serology and therapy of this rare human pathogen. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Fuehrer H.-P.,Medical University of Vienna | Fuehrer H.-P.,Malaria Research Initiative Bandarban | Stadler M.-T.,Biomedical science | Buczolich K.,Medical University of Vienna | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2012

The primers traditionally used to detect Plasmodium ovale infections are known for not binding all P. ovale parasites within the small-subunit rRNA gene when used alone. We describe a simple, cost- and time-efficient multiplex nested PCR and a nested PCR using a novel set of primers for the simultaneous detection of P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Starzengruber P.,Medical University of Vienna | Starzengruber P.,Malaria Research Initiative Bandarban | Fuehrer H.-P.,Medical University of Vienna | Fuehrer H.-P.,Malaria Research Initiative Bandarban | And 9 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2014

Background: Spreading resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to existing drugs calls for the search for novel anti-malarial drugs and combinations for the treatment of falciparum malaria. Methods. In vitro and ex vivo investigations were conducted with fresh P. falciparum field isolates and culture-adapted P. falciparum clones to evaluate the anti-malarial potential of mirincamycin, a lincosamide, alone and in combination with tafenoquine (TQ), dihydroartemisinin (DHA), and chloroquine (CQ). All samples were tested in a histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) drug susceptibility assay. Results: Interaction analysis showed additive to synergistic interaction profiles with these potential partner drugs, with an overall geometric mean fractional inhibitory concentration at 50% inhibition (FIC50) of 0.78, 0.80 and 0.80 for mirincamycin with TQ, DHA, and CQ, respectively. Antagonism was not found in any of the tested field isolates or clones. The strongest tendency toward synergy (i.e. the lowest FIC) was seen with a combination ratio of 1:0.27 to 1:7.2 (mean 1:2.7) for the combination with tafenoquine. The optimal combination ratios for DHA and CQ were 1:444.4 to 1:36,000 (mean 1:10,755.5) and 1:2.7 to 1:216 (mean 1:64.5), respectively. No evidence of an activity correlation (i.e. potential cross-resistance) with DHA, mefloquine, quinine or chloroquine was seen whereas a significant correlation with the activity of clindamycin and azithromycin was detected. Conclusions: Mirincamycin combinations may be promising candidates for further clinical investigations in the therapy and prophylaxis of multidrug-resistant falciparum malaria or in combination with 4 or 8-aminoquinolines for the treatment and relapse prevention of vivax malaria. © 2014 Starzengruber et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Swoboda P.,Medical University of Vienna | Swoboda P.,Malaria Research Initiative Bandarban | Ley B.,Medical University of Vienna | Ley B.,Malaria Research Initiative Bandarban | And 22 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2014

In malaria-endemic regions any febrile case is likely to be classified as malaria based on presumptive diagnosis largely caused by a lack of diagnostic resources. A district-wide prevalence study assessing etiologies of fever in 659 patients recruited in rural and semi-urban areas of Bandarban district in southeastern Bangladesh revealed high proportions of seropositivity for selected infectious diseases (leptospirosis, typhoid fever) potentially being misdiagnosed as malaria because of similarities in the clinical presentation. In an area with point prevalences of more than 40% for malaria among fever cases, even higher seroprevalence rates of leptospirosis and typhoid fever provide evidence of a major persistent reservoir of these pathogens. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Starzengruber P.,Medical University of Vienna | Starzengruber P.,Malaria Research Initiative Bandarban | Fuehrer H.-P.,Medical University of Vienna | Fuehrer H.-P.,Malaria Research Initiative Bandarban | And 16 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2014

Background: The WHO has reported that RDT and microscopy-confirmed malaria cases have declined in recent years. However, it is still unclear if this reflects a real decrease in incidence in Bangladesh, as particularly the hilly and forested areas of the Chittagong Hill Tract (CHT) Districts report more than 80% of all cases and deaths. surveillance and epidemiological data on malaria from the CHT are limited; existing data report Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax as the dominant species. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the District of Bandarban, the southernmost of the three Hill Tracts Districts, to collect district-wide malaria prevalence data from one of the regions with the highest malaria endemicity in Bangladesh. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to collect blood samples from febrile and afebrile participants and malaria microscopy and standardized nested PCR for diagnosis were performed. Demographic data, vital signs and splenomegaly were recorded. Results: Malaria prevalence across all subdistricts in the monsoon season was 30.7% (95% CI: 28.3-33.2) and 14.2% (95% CI: 12.5-16.2) by PCR and microscopy, respectively. Plasmodium falciparum mono-infections accounted for 58.9%, P. vivax mono-infections for 13.6%, Plasmodium malariae for 1.8%, and Plasmodium ovale for 1.4% of all positive cases. In 24.4% of all cases mixed infections were identified by PCR. The proportion of asymptomatic infections among PCR-confirmed cases was 77.0%, oligosymptomatic and symptomatic cases accounted for only 19.8 and 3.2%, respectively. Significantly (p < 0.01) more asymptomatic cases were recorded among participants older than 15 years as compared to younger participants, whereas prevalence and parasite density were significantly (p < 0.01) higher in patients younger than 15 years. Spleen rate and malaria prevalence in two to nine year olds were 18.6 and 34.6%, respectively. No significant difference in malaria prevalence and parasite density was observed between dry and rainy season. Conclusions: A large proportion of asymptomatic plasmodial infections was found which likely act as a reservoir of transmission. This has major implications for ongoing malaria control programmes that are based on the treatment of symptomatic patients. These findings highlight the need for new intervention strategies targeting asymptomatic carriers. © 2014 Starzengruber et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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