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Suku S.,Malankara Catholic College | Knipfer T.,University College Dublin | Fricke W.,University College Dublin
Annals of Botany | Year: 2014

Background and AimsAs annual crops develop, transpirational water loss increases substantially. This increase has to be matched by an increase in water uptake through the root system. The aim of this study was to assess the contributions of changes in intrinsic root hydraulic conductivity (Lp, water uptake per unit root surface area, driving force and time), driving force and root surface area to developmental increases in root water uptake. MethodsHydroponically grown barley plants were analysed during four windows of their vegetative stage of development, when they were 9-13, 14-18, 19-23 and 24-28 d old. Hydraulic conductivity was determined for individual roots (Lp) and for entire root systems (Lpr). Osmotic Lp of individual seminal and adventitious roots and osmotic Lpr of the root system were determined in exudation experiments. Hydrostatic Lp of individual roots was determined by root pressure probe analyses, and hydrostatic Lpr of the root system was derived from analyses of transpiring plants.Key ResultsAlthough osmotic and hydrostatic Lp and Lpr values increased initially during development and were correlated positively with plant transpiration rate, their overall developmental increases (about 2-fold) were small compared with increases in transpirational water loss and root surface area (about 10- to 40-fold). The water potential gradient driving water uptake in transpiring plants more than doubled during development, and potentially contributed to the increases in plant water flow. Osmotic Lpr of entire root systems and hydrostatic Lpr of transpiring plants were similar, suggesting that the main radial transport path in roots was the cell-to-cell path at all developmental stages.ConclusionsIncrease in the surface area of root system, and not changes in intrinsic root hydraulic properties, is the main means through which barley plants grown hydroponically sustain an increase in transpirational water loss during their vegetative development. © 2013 © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup. com.


Valan A.M.,Entomology Research Institute | Asha K.R.T.,Malankara Catholic College | Duraipandiyan V.,King Saud University | Ignacimuthu S.,Entomology Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2012

Objective: To isolate and indentify the promising antimicrobial metabolite producing . Streptomyces strains from marine sediment samples from Andrapradesh coast of India. Methods: Antagonistic actinomycetes were isolated by starch casein agar medium and modified nutrient agar medium with 1% glucose used as a base for primary screening. Significant antimicrobial metabolite producing strains were selected and identified by using biochemical and 16S rDNA level. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the organic extracts were done by using broth micro dilution method. Results: Among the 210 actinomycetes, 64.3% exhibited activity against Gram positive bacteria, 48.5 % showed activity towards Gram negative bacteria, 38.8% exhibited both Gram positive and negative bacteria and 80.85 % isolates revealed significant antifungal activity. However, five isolates AP-5, AP-18, AP-41 and AP-70 showed significant antimicrobial activity. The analysis of cell wall hydrolysates showed the presence of LL-diaminopimelic acid and glycine in all the isolates. Sequencing analysis indicated that the isolates shared 98.5%-99.8% sequence identity to the 16S rDNA gene sequences of the . Streptomyces taxons. The antimicrobial substances were extracted using hexane and ethyl acetate from spent medium in which strains were cultivated at 30°C for five days. The antimicrobial activity was assessed using broth micro dilution technique. Each of the culture extracts from these five strains showed a typical polyene-like property. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations of ethyl acetate extracts against . Escherichia coli and . Curvularia lunata were 67.5 and 125.0 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: It can be concluded that hexane and ethyl acetate soluble extracellular products of novel isolates are effective against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine.


Mary H.P.A.,Malankara Catholic College | Susheela G.K.,National College of Arts | Jayasree S.,Malankara Catholic College | Nizzy A.M.,Malankara Catholic College | And 2 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2012

Objective: To study the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical characterization of essential oil isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Methods: Fresh rhizomes of Curcuma xanthorrhiza were subjected to hydro distillation process to obtain essential oil and characterized by Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS). The essential oil was evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activity against thirteen pathogenic bacteria and six fungi by the disc diffusion method. Results: GC - MS analysis of the essential oil extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza contained the derivatives of xanthorihizol, camphene and curcumene, monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene, hydrocarbons and other minor compounds. The antimicrobial activity of the oil showed significant inhibitory activity against the human pathogenic bacteria, no activity was observed against the fungi Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum. Conclusions: The findings of the present study indicate that the rhizome extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza possess secondary metabolites and potential to develop antimicrobial drugs. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine.


Joseph B.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Nair V.M.,Malankara Catholic College
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2013

Presently, researchers have been given remarkable attention to complementary and alternative medicine to deal with cancer treatment from medicinal plants mainly due to its fewer side effects and ease availability. Several scientific studies deep- rooted the anti- cancerous property of Ocimum sanctum Linn., a traditional medicinal plant commonly known as Tulsi. The chemopreventive and radiopreventive property of O. sanctum along with its anti- oxidant, anti- inflammatory and anti- stress property reside as a backbone for it anti- cancerous effect. It is demonstrated that the cornerstone behind this effect is the various phytochemical constituents such as eugenol, orientin, vicenin- 2, linolenic acid and ursolic acid. The present review is an effort to amalgamate the various scientific studies underlying the anti-cancerous effect of O. sanctum under one roof. In this review, the anti-cancerous activity of O. sanctum in numerous cancers such as lung, skin, oral, cervical, gastric, breast and prostate were comprehensively represented.


Joseph B.,Malankara Catholic College | Raj S.J.,Malankara Catholic College
International Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2011

The present investigation was carried out to understand the impact of curacron on Serum aminotransferases activity (ALT and AST) of fresh water fish Cyprinus carpio. Curacron is an organophosphate pesticide and is widely used by the farmers to protect their crops. So every year huge volume of Curacron enters to aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of curcuron pesticides and its influence of serum biomarker enzyme (ALT and AST). LC 50of Curacron for Cyprinus carpio has been calculated by the log-dose/probit regression line method and recorded as 0.38 ppm at 96 h. Three sub-lethal concentrations (0.1, 0.01 mL and 0.001 ml L -1) were selected to expose the fish for 1,7, 14 and 21 days. Changes in enzyme activity were observed with all concentrations and exposure period. ALT and AST concentrations were significantly higher in the experimental group, compared with the control group. The above results of blood plasma profile indicate a marked cytotoxic and hepatotoxic effect of curacron in Cyprinus carpio. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc.


Prakash Williams G.,Malankara Catholic College | Gnanadesigan M.,Alagappa University | Ravikumar S.,Alagappa University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2012

The present study is an attempt to find out the promising metal (Ni 2+, Al 3+, and Hg 2+) biosorbant halobacterial strains from saltern pan and to study their biokinetic parameters for metal recovery. Of the selected 65 isolates, Natronobacterium magadii, Natronococcus occultus and Halobacterium sodomense shows the maximum metal resistance activity against Ni 2+ (250ppm), Al 3+ (600ppm) and Hg 2+ (25ppm) metals. Biokinetic parameters such as maximum specific growth rate (μ max), substrate removable [S] rate, half velocity constant (K s), endogenous or decay co-efficient (k d), yield co-efficient rate (Yd -1) are also analyzed for the selected metals. Further the results of the SEM-EDS analysis confirms the metals uptake of Ni 2+ and Al 3+ in higher concentration and Hg 2+ in lower concentration. It is concluded from the present study that, the biosorption of heavy metals by solar saltern halobacteria can be used as a potential source for the bioremediation of metals. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Bright K.C.,Malankara Catholic College | Freeda T.H.,Physics Research Center
Physica B: Condensed Matter | Year: 2010

Single crystals of l-alanine cadmium chloride (LACC), an organometallic nonlinear optical material, have been grown by the slow evaporation technique. The grown crystals were subjected to various characterization techniques, such as single crystal and powder XRD, FTIR, UVvis and TGA-DTA. The mechanical properties of the crystals show that this material belongs to the category of hard materials. Second harmonic generation was confirmed by the Kurtz and Perry powder technique. Electrical parameters, such as dielectric constant, dielectric loss, ac and dc conductivity and their corresponding activation energies have been studied. The low dielectric constant and dielectric loss suggest that this material is a good candidate for micro-electronic applications. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Hema T.A.,Malankara Catholic College | Helen Pappa T.,Malankara Catholic College
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2012

Alpha-galactosidase is a glycoside hydrolase enzyme that hydrolyses the terminal alpha-galactosyl moieties from glycolipids and glycoproteins. Pseudomonas sp. MCCMB3 an alpha galactosidase producer was isolated from the rock soil of Kulasekaram, Kanyakumari district, South India. Totally 10 strains were isolated, when compared with other strains, predominant enzyme activity has been observed in the strain of Pseudomonas sp. MCCMB3. The maximum amount of enzyme was produced using nutrient broth during optimization. Environmental and nutritional parameters were optimized for the enhanced enzyme production. The enzyme production was maximum at pH 8.0 and temperature 50°C. Glucose and ammonium carbonate induces enzyme production as carbon and nitrogen sources respectively. Based on the zymographic analysis, the molecular weight of the purified enzyme was about 80 KDa. The alpha galactosidase enzyme produced by Pseudomonas sp MCCMB3 degrades raffinose and stachyose present in soymilk which is used in other industrial applications.


Hema T.A.,Malankara Catholic College | Arya A.S.,Malankara Catholic College | Suseelan S.,Malankara Catholic College | John Celestinal R.K.,Malankara Catholic College | Divya P.V.,Malankara Catholic College
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2013

The antimicrobial activity of leaves of five South Indian medicinal plants Adhatoda vasika, Bacopa monnieri, Carica papaya, Cissampelos pareira and Cynodon dactylon, collected from regions of Kulathoor and Malayadi were investigated against ten clinical pathogens (Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sp., Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus sp.) using agar well diffusion method and broth dilution method. The plant extracts were prepared using the solvents - acetone, ethanol and propanol. It is clear from the results that, the extract of five plants used in this study acts as a good source of antibiotics against various bacterial pathogens tested and exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids in all plants selected and other secondary metabolites like tannins, glycosides and saponins were also observed in all the extracts. The MIC values ranges between 3.175(g/ml and 12.5(g/ml, whereas MBC values ranges between 6.25(g/ml and 12.5(g/ml. The results of this study support the use of all the selected five medicinal plants to discover bioactive natural products that may serve as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals that address unmet therapeutic needs.


Sukanya M.K.,Malankara Catholic college | Suku S.,Malankara Catholic college | Aruna S.R.,Malankara Catholic college
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2013

In our study, preliminary phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial and antihelminthic investigation on Phyllanthus emblica was done. P. emblica is a well known and an important medicinally valued plant. Although the efficacy of P. emblica fruit is widely proved, use of leaf and bark is less investigated. Present aim of our study is to find the biologically active compound present in this particular plant, check its antimicrobial and antihelminthic property. Different solvent extract of the leaf and bark were used to identify the bioactive compounds present and its antimicrobial activity was checked against different human pathogens(MTCC).Antihelminthic activty was checked against Phertima posthuma. The study shown it has promising antimicrobial and antihelminthic property. Methanol of the leaf sample showed highest zone of inhibition against Enterobacter aerogens and Enterobacter feacalis. Ethyl acetate of leaf and bark sample showed antifungal activity against Rhizomucor species. The pharmacological property of this medicinally important plant has to be further investigated.

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