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Rai N.P.,University of Kuala Lumpur | Divakar D.D.,University of Kuala Lumpur | Divakar D.D.,King Saud University | Kheraif A.A.A.,King Saud University | And 5 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2015

Background: The treatment selection for the oral squamous cell carcinoma remains controversial. Radiation therapy or surgical excision of the lesion can be applied as the sole treatment or it can be used in combination with other treatment modalities. Radiotherapy is considered to be the safest of all the treatment modalities and can be used in several situations for oral and oropharyngeal cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival outcome differences in patients treated with radical and palliative radiotherapy as the primary treatment modality. Materials and Methods: The study included a total of 47 patients with oral cancer reporting to our hospital between years 2009 to 2010. The age group for the selected patients was more than 65 years, treated with radical and palliative radiotherapy with no prior surgical interventions. Patients were evaluated till Dec 2013 for overall survival time. Results: Twenty nine patients were treated with radical radiotherapy as main stay of treatment, out of which 21 died during the follow up time with median survival of 352 ± 281.7 days with 8 patients alive. All the 16 patients were dead who received palliative radiotherapy with a median survival time of 112 ± 144.0 days. Conclusions: This retrospective study showed improved overall survival time, loco regional control rates and reduced morbidity in patients treated with radical radiotherapy when compared to patients treated with palliative radiotherapy.

Rai N.P.,University of Kuala Lumpur | Anekar J.,KVG Dental College and Hospital Sullia | Shivaraja Shankara Y.M.,KVG Medical College and Hospital Sullia | Divakar D.D.,Dental Biomaterials Research Chair | And 6 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2015

Background: Tumor markers, designated as a broad group of substances produced by malignancies, could be in the form of biochemical substances, immunological substances, cell surface changes and genetic alterations. Cancer, a disorder of cellular behavior is characterized by alteration of serum glycoproteins. L-fucose, a hexose, which is the terminal sugar in most of the plasma glycoproteins, may be useful as a tumor marker for the detection, monitoring and prognostic assessment of malignancies. The aim of the study was to ascertain the role of serum fucose as a biomarker for early detection of oral cancer and to compare serum fucose levels in healthy controls, leukoplakia and oral cancer patients. Materials and Methods: The study included 60 (100.0%) subjects, who were grouped as 20 (33.3%) control subjects, 20 (33.3%) squamous cell carcinoma patients and 20 (33.3%) leukoplakia patients. Fucose estimation was done using UV-visible spectrophotometry based on the method as adopted by Winzler using cysteine reagent. The results were analyzed statistically using ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests. Results: Results showed a high significance in serum fucose in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and leukoplakia subjects compared to normal controls. There was a gradual increase in the values noted from control to leukoplakia and to squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusions: Estimation of serum fucose may be a reliable marker and can be used as an effective diagnostic biomarker in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients.

Anekar J.,KVG Dental College and Hospital | Raj A.C.,KVG Dental College and Hospital | Mustafa S.M.,Malabar Dental College and Research Center
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2015

Schwannomas are a type of nerve sheath tumours predominant in the soft tissues of the head and neck. They commonly present as slow growing, painful swellings and may rarely be accompanied by paresthesia. Less than 1% of schwannomas are intraosseous with affliction to the mandible over maxilla. Only 13 cases of maxillary schwannomas have been reported till date. This article documents a rare case of intramaxillary schwannoma that was disclosed during an incidental radiographic examination. It also provides a review of the literature on central schwannomas affecting the maxilla which suggests its affliction to females in the second decade with equal preference to both anterior and posterior segments of the jaw. It also highlights that intraosseous schwannomas may be considered in the differential diagnosis of periapical lesions with nonspecific clinical and radiographic features. © 2015, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All rights reserved.

Mustafa S.,Malabar Dental College and Research Center | Raj A.C.,KVG Dental College and Hospital | Anekar J.,KVG Dental College and Hospital | Divakar D.D.,King Saud University | And 5 more authors.
Asian Biomedicine | Year: 2015

Background: Assessing the maturational status and pubertal growth spurt of a patient has considerable influence on diagnosis, treatment planning, and the outcome of orthodontic treatment. Objectives: To assess the usefulness of panoramic radiographs as a tool to estimate the growth and to ascertain the importance of tooth calcification stages as an indicator of maturity by using digital panoramic radiographs. Methods: We compared the dental maturity assessed by calcification of mandibular canine, first premolar, second premolar, and second molars using digital panoramic radiographs and skeletal maturity assessed by cervical vertebral maturation stages using lateral cephalograms and hand-wrist radiographs. Skeletal maturity was assessed using a cervical vertebrae maturation technique; hand-wrist maturity was evaluated using Fishman skeletal maturity indicators. Dental maturity was estimated according to guidelines of Demirjian. Spearman rank-order correlation coefficients were used to determine the correlation between tooth calcification stages and skeletal maturity assessed on panoramic radiographs, lateral cephalograms, and hand-wrist radiographs of 60 patient participants, including 45 boys and 15 girls. Results: The panoramic radiograph is a reliable tool with which to estimate of growth and development of boys. Conclusion: The relationship between tooth calcification stages and the skeletal maturity indicators in boys allows clinicians to identify the stage of the pubertal growth from panoramic radiographs. It is appropriate to put these skeletal and dental maturation relationships into daily orthodontic diagnostic practice.

Balasubramaniam A.M.,Sathyabama University | Sriraman R.,Sathyabama University | Sindhuja P.,G.D. Karthik Clinic | Mohideen K.,Sathyabama University | Muhamed Haris K.T.,Malabar Dental College and Research Center
Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences | Year: 2015

Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Despite of various advancements in the treatment modalities, oral cancer mortalities are more, particularly in developing countries like India. This is mainly due to the delay in diagnosis of oral cancer. Delay in diagnosis greatly reduces prognosis of the treatment and also cause increased morbidity and mortality rates. Early diagnosis plays a key role in effective management of oral cancer. A rapid diagnostic technique can greatly aid in the early diagnosis of oral cancer. Now a day's many adjunctive oral cancer screening techniques are available for the early diagnosis of cancer. Among these, autofluorescence based diagnostic techniques are rapidly emerging as a powerful tool. These techniques are broadly discussed in this review. © 2015 Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.

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