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Saganuwan S.A.,Makurdi University Of Agriculture
Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2017

The use of central nervous system (CNS) acting drugs in the management of neuro degenerative and psychiatric problems cannot be overemphasized. Therefore, the chemical structure of piroxicam can be modified to yield new CNS stimulants and depressants that can be of great benefit to man and animals. Acetylcholine has Methyl-Oxygen-Oxygen (M-O-O) and Nitrogen (N) functional groups which are structurally related to Sulphur-Oxygen-Oxygen (S-O-O) and Nitrogen (N) of piroxicam that are either methylated or hydrogenated. Each arecoline and nicotine has M-O-O in addition to methylated nitrogen and pyridine ring respectively, making them structurally related to piroxicam. Therefore, when Sulphur of piroxicam is replaced by methyl group, it may likely have muscarinic effects expressed by glandular secretion, gut sedation and vasodepression. Whereas the nitrogen group may be responsible for cholinergic effect in gaglia and striated muscle. Because of the carboxylic functional group (COOH), piroxicam may be display depressant effect. Hence C = O, C = N and C = C in piroxicam may change due to biofield treatement. The conversion of piroxicam to central nervous system (CNS) acting drugs may by desulphation, methylation, dehydrogenation, carboxylation and carbonylation. The would-be synthesized CNS drugs from piroxicam, should have low molecular weight, lipid soluble and low PH. © 2017 Bentham Science Publishers.


Saganuwan S.,Makurdi University Of Agriculture
Clinical Medicine Insights: Therapeutics | Year: 2016

Abstract: Sickle cell disease is caused due to a genetic disorder, which accounts for people dying at an early age in Nigeria. A retrospective study of sickle cell disease patients was carried out with a view to determining the disease pattern in sickle cell patients from the Northwestern Nigeria. Case notes of 319 sickle cell patients were collected and reviewed retrospectively. The prevalence of sickle cell trait, comorbidity of sickle cell disease and malaria, and the effects of sickle cell disease and age on the weight and hematological parameters of sickle cell patients were determined and analyzed. Results showed the prevalence rate of sickle cell trait to be 61.8% (197) and that of non-sickle cell trait to be 38.2% (122). The sickle cell trait comprised 96 males (48.7%) and 101 females (51.3%). Among these patients, 51 (41.8%) males and 71 (58.2%) females had malaria. However, 35.4% (113) of sickle cell patients and 7.5% (24) of malaria patients showed anemia. Genotyping revealed 32 AS (16.2%), 102 SS (51.8%), SS+F (3.6%), and 56 SC (28.4%). The associated prevalence rates of clinical signs were pain/crisis 45.1% (89), pneumonia 28.4% (56), gastric disorders 9.1% (18), central nervous system (CNS) disorders 4.1% (8), renal diseases 2.5% (5), musculo-skeletal disorders 2.5% (5), conjunctivitis 0.5% (1), acute chest syndrome 0.5% (1), cholecystitis 0.5% (1), hemophilia 0.5% (1), fever 0.5% (1), priapism 2.0% (4), splenomegaly 2.0% (4), and epistaxis 1.5% (3). Few patients lived up to 49 years. There was significant difference (P < 0.05) in hematological parameters of the patients from various age groups. The use of anti-sickling, hematonic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antimalarial drugs in the treatment of the affected disease in patients might have improved their quality of life. © the authors, publisher and licensee Libertas Academica Limited.


Itodo I.N.,Makurdi University Of Agriculture | Umogbai V.I.,Makurdi University Of Agriculture
Renewable Energy | Year: 2011

An empirical model for determining the monthly average daily global solar radiation on a horizontal surface for Makurdi, Nigeria (Latitude 7°7′N and Longitude 8°6′E) was developed using the Angstrom-Page equation. The solar radiation (W/m2), hours of bright sunshine and cloudiness were measured hourly from 0600 H to 1800 H daily for 18 months. The constants 'a' and 'b' of the Angstrom linear type equation were determined by plotting the clearness index (H/Ho) against the possible sunshine hours (ns/N) to obtain the line of best fit. The constant 'a' was obtained from the intercept of the line on the y-axis while the constant 'b' was obtained from the slope of the line. The developed model for determining the global horizontal solar radiation at the location was H = Ho [0.17 + 0.68(n/N)] with a coefficient of correlation of 0.78. The mean bias error and root mean square error that were used to test the performance of the constants were 0.17% and 1.22% respectively. The measured solar radiation was compared with the solar radiation predicted by the model and no significant difference was found between them using F-LSD at P ≤ 0.05. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Adenkola A.Y.,Makurdi University Of Agriculture | Ayo J.O.,Ahmadu Bello University
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2010

Physiological and behavioural responses of livestock to road transportation stress are reviewed. Livestock transported by road in most part of the world are predisposed to many stressors which affect the haematological, hormonal function as well as the behavioural activities of the livestock thereby disrupting body homeostasis. © 2010 Academic Journals.


Singh J.,Ahmadu Bello University | Leke O.,Makurdi University Of Agriculture
Astrophysics and Space Science | Year: 2013

This paper investigates the combined effect of small perturbations ε,ε′ in the Coriolis and centrifugal forces, radiation pressure qi, and changing oblateness of the primaries Ai(t) (i=1,2) on the stability of equilibrium points in the restricted three body problem in which the primaries is a supergiant eclipsing binary system which consists of a pair of bright oblate stars having the appearance of a giant peanut in space and their masses assumed to vary with time in the absence of reactive forces. The equations of motion are derived and the equilibrium points are obtained. For the autonomized system, it is seen that there are more than a pair of the triangular points as κ→∞; κ being the arbitrary sum of the masses of the primaries. In the case of the collinear points, two additional equilibrium points exist on the line joining the primaries when simultaneously κ+ε′<0 and both primaries are oblate, i. e., 0<αi≪1. So there are five collinear equilibrium points in this case. Two non-planar equilibrium points exist for κ>1. Hence, there are at least nine equilibrium points of the system. The stability of these points is explored analytically and numerically. It is seen that the collinear and triangular points are stable with respect to certain conditions controlled by κ while the non-planar equilibrium points are unstable. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


The possibility of protecting susceptible maize variety from Sitophilus zeamais infestation with powder of known highly resistant maize variety for economic benefits was investigated in a bioassay that lasted for 34 days. The parameters assessed were weevil mortality, number of live weevil, grain damage, grain weight loss, weight of grain powder and oviposition rate. Relative to unprotected stored maize, the performance of the test powder was established after a rating scale developed. Amongst powder concentrations tried 2.0% and 2.50% (w/w) protected the susceptible maize insignificantly against S. zeamais infestation and damage.


Joel M.,Makurdi University Of Agriculture
Leonardo Electronic Journal of Practices and Technologies | Year: 2010

The suitability of Crushed granite fine (CGF) to replace river sand in concrete production for use in rigid pavement was investigated. Slump, compressive and indirect tensile strength tests were performed on fresh and hardened concrete.28 days Peak compressive and indirect tensile strength values of 40.70N/mm2 and 2.30N/mm2 respectively was obtained, with the partial replacement of river sand with 20% CGF, as against values of 35.00N/mm2 and 1.75N/mm2, obtained with the use of river sand as fine aggregate. Based on economic analysis and results of tests, river sand replaced with 20% CGF is recommended for use in the production of concrete for use in rigid pavement. Conservation of river sand in addition to better ways of disposing wastes from the quarry sites are some of the merits of using CGF. © 2010 by the authors.


Saganuwan A.S.,Makurdi University Of Agriculture
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research | Year: 2010

Many nations of the world have traditional medicine. Arabs were the first to distil alcohol. The existence and use of plants to treat human diseases is as old as man. Some plants have opportunity, either to be or of being transferred from their original natural environment to another. To determine whether traditional medicines were available for the treatment of diseases in Arabian Pennisula, a literature review of the plants used by Arabs was completed which led to identification of about 150 medicinal plants used in the treatment of human diseases in the Pennisula. Some of the listed plants are already available in Nigeria perhaps as a result of interaction between Arabs/Jews from Middle East and Arab-Barbas, Tuaregs, Fulanis and Hausas in Africa through trans Sahara trade and pilgrimages. © 2010 Academic Journals.


Joel M.,Makurdi University Of Agriculture | Agbede I.O.,Makurdi University Of Agriculture
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering | Year: 2011

An attempt was made to improve the physical and strength properties of a reddish-brown lateritic soil. 15-60% of sand by dry weight of laterite was used as a modifier in the stabilization of the laterite with 3-12% by dry weight of cement. Classification, compaction, California bearing ratio (CBR), and unconfined compressive strength tests were carried out on the specimens. The plasticity index decreased from 17% for untreated laterite to 2.5% when treated with a combination of 60% sand+6% cement. For the two energy levels of compaction, optimum moisture content (OMC) was found to increase with an increase in cement content but decreased as the sand content increased. The OMC at the West African standard (WAS) energy level was consistently lower than the values obtained at the standard proctor (SP) energy level, while the corresponding values of maximum dry density were higher at the WAS energy level than the values at the SP energy level. The CBR requirements for base course material were met when laterite was admixed with 45% sand+6% cement and 30% sand+6% cement, and 15% sand+6% cement, 30% sand+6% cement, and 45% sand+3% cement at the SP and WAS energy levels, respectively. It can be concluded that sand enhanced the effective stabilization of Ikpayongo laterite with cement within the maximum cement content specified by the Nigerian code. © 2011 ASCE.


Alakali J.S.,Makurdi University Of Agriculture | Irtwange S.V.,Makurdi University Of Agriculture | Mzer M.T.,Makurdi University Of Agriculture
Meat Science | Year: 2010

This study evaluated composite beef-bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean L.) seed flour patties to determine the effect of bambara groundnut flour (BGF) inclusion on the quality and acceptability of the products. The effect of different levels of BGF (0%, 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5%) on the proximate composition and pH indicate that BGF had no significant (p ≤ 0.05) effect on moisture, protein and carbohydrate of raw patties except ash and pH whereas there was significant (p ≤ 0.05) effect on all the parameters for the cooked patties. BGF significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced the shrinkage of the cooked patties from 9.13% to 6.76%, while percentage cooking yield, moisture retention, and fat retention increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) with increasing BGF levels from 79.1% to 87.2%, 67.51% to 78.05% and 73.51% to 88.34%, respectively. The use of BGF significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased the pH of cooked patties from 6.16 to 6.23. Beef patties extended with BGF up to 5% addition exhibited good quality attributes most acceptable to the consumers. The pH of the 0% BGF-beef patties decreased significantly during storage, up to day 14, and increased thereafter. However, the pH of the patties with BGF consistently decreased significantly up to day 21. The TBA values of both (0% and 5% BGF-beef patties) increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) from 0.054 to 0.25 and from 0.05 to 0.24 mg malonaldehyde/kg, respectively. All sensory attributes decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) as storage time progressed. The physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of the patties were found to be acceptable after 21 days refrigerated storage. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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