Ahmed O.S.,Makivik Corporation |
Shemrock A.,UAV Solutions |
Chabot D.,DroneMetrics |
Dillon C.,DroneMetrics |
And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Remote Sensing | Year: 2017
The use of multispectral cameras deployed on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in land cover and vegetation mapping applications continues to improve and receive increasing recognition and adoption by resource management and forest survey practitioners. Comparisons of different camera data and platform performance characteristics are an important contribution in understanding the role and operational capability of this technology. In this article, object-based classification accuracies for different cover types and vegetation species of interest in central Ontario were examined using data from three UAV-based multispectral cameras. Five land-cover classes (forest, shrub, herbaceous, bare soil, and built-up) were determined to be up to 95% correct overall with calibrated multispectral Parrot Sequoia digital camera data compared to independent field observations. The levels of classification accuracy decreased approximately 10–15% when spectrally less capable consumer-grade RGB sensors were used. Multispectral Parrot Sequoia classification accuracy was approximately 89% when more detailed vegetation classes, including individual deciduous tree species, shrub communities and agricultural crops, were analysed. Additional work is suggested in the use of such UAV multispectral and point cloud data in ash tree discrimination to support emerald ash borer infestation detection and management, and in analysis of functional and structural vegetation characteristics (e.g. leaf area index). © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
Larrat S.,University of Montréal |
Simard M.,Makivik Corporation |
Lair S.,University of Montréal |
Belanger D.,University of Montréal
International Journal of Circumpolar Health | Year: 2012
Objectives. During the 1980s, walrus-meat consumption caused infections with the parasite Trichinella nativa in Nunavik inhabitants. In response to these events, stakeholders set up the community-based Nunavik Trichinellosis Prevention Program (NTPP). The objectives of the present communication are to review the NTPP, describe how science and action were interwoven in its development and identify its assets and limitations. Study design. Descriptive study. Methods. The NTPP relies on a pooled digestion assay of tongue samples taken from each harvested walrus. The public health recommendations depend on the results of the analyses: infected walrus meat should be destroyed; parasite-free meat may be eaten raw or cooked. Results. All communities involved in the walrus hunt participate in the NTPP and a high percentage of harvested walruses are included in the NTPP. Infected animals account for 2.9% of the walruses tested (20/ 694) since 1992. The NTPP permitted the early management of a trichinellosis event in 1997. Since then, it prevented the new occurrence of outbreaks related to walruses hunted by Nunavimmiut. Conclusions. The absence of recent major outbreaks of trichinellosis in Nunavik may reasonably be attributed to the NTPP. The success of the program stands on many facilitating factors such as the nature of the disease and its source, the existence of an efficient analytic method, the strong involvement of the different partners including direct resource users, as well as the comprehensive bidirectional science-to-action approach that has been followed. © 2012 Sylvain Larrat et al.
Leclair D.,Bureau of Microbial Hazards |
Leclair D.,Canadian Food Inspection Agency |
Farber J.M.,Bureau of Microbial Hazards |
Doidge B.,Makivik Corporation |
And 4 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2013
The distribution and levels of Clostridium botulinum type E were determined from field sites used by Inuit hunters for butchering seals along the coast of Nunavik. The incidence rates of C. botulinum type E in shoreline soil along the coast were 0, 50, and 87.5% among samples tested for the Hudson Strait, Hudson Bay, and Ungava Bay regions, respectively. Spores were detected in seawater or coastal rock surfaces from 17.6% of butchering sites, almost all of which were located in southern Ungava Bay. Concentrations of C. botulinum type E along the Ungava Bay coast were significantly higher than on the coasts of Hudson Strait and Hudson Bay, with the highest concentrations (270 to 1,800/kg of sample) found near butchering sites located along the mouths of large rivers. The Koksoak River contained high levels of C. botulinum type E, with the highest median concentration (270/kg) found in sediments of the marine portion of the river. C. botulinum type E was found in the intestinal contents (4.4%) and skins (1.4%) of seals. A high genetic biodiversity of C. botulinum type E isolates was observed among the 21 butchering sites and their surroundings along the Nunavik coastline, with 83% of isolates (44/53) yielding distinct pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genotypes. Multiple sources of C. botulinum type E may be involved in the contamination of seal meat during butchering in this region, but the risk of contamination appears to be much higher from environmental sources along the shoreline of southern Ungava Bay and the sediments of the Koksoak River. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology.
Franklin S.E.,Trent University |
Ahmed O.S.,Makivik Corporation
International Journal of Remote Sensing | Year: 2017
Object-based image analysis and machine-learning classification were applied to multispectral camera array data acquired by a small rotating blade unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) over a hardwood forest in eastern Ontario. White birch, aspen, and two species of maple were surveyed in the field. Images were segmented and the resulting objects were visually confirmed to correspond with the sampled tree crowns. Following the application of machine-learning classification using the Random Forest algorithm, an independent validation sample of 23 tree crowns was, overall, approximately 78% correct. Aspen and birch were the most distinct species; the two maples appeared to be confused with each other and with immature trees and understory shrubs. Classification accuracy, commission errors, and variable importance were interpreted to be consistent with experience documented in aerial photointerpretation selection and elimination keys for northern hardwoods. Additional tests are recommended to more fully analyse the accuracy of deciduous tree species classification using digital analysis of high spatial resolution multispectral UAV imagery. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group
Tran L.,Makivik Corporation |
Reist J.D.,Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans |
Power M.,University of Waterloo
Hydrobiologia | Year: 2016
Total mercury (THg) concentrations were measured for different life-history types of Northern Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma malma) from the Babbage River, Yukon Territory, Canada to test hypotheses regarding the influence of life-history type, trophic position, and growth rate on THg tissue concentrations. In contrast to other northern anadromous fish species, higher measured THg concentrations were found in the anadromous life-history types. Standardization for common age, however, indicated that anadromous fish had lower THg concentrations than freshwater resident life-history types. δ15N was the most important factor in explaining observed differences among the individuals regardless of life-history types, with growth rate also contributing to explain among-individual variation. The contrast of higher absolute, but lower age- and size-adjusted THg levels in anadromous fish was explained by a combination of two counteracting mechanisms, including: (1) a switch to feeding at higher trophic levels and the use of more THg contaminated marine prey, and (2) somatic growth dilution that, with increasing growth efficiency, decreases THg as fish grow and age. Results underscore the importance of considering life-history variation in addition to trophic patterns, and fish sizes and age when interpreting mercury concentrations in fish with varying life histories. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland
Bailleul F.,Maurice Lamontagne Institute |
Lesage V.,Maurice Lamontagne Institute |
Power M.,University of Waterloo |
Doidge D.W.,Makivik Corporation |
Hammill M.O.,Maurice Lamontagne Institute
Climate Research | Year: 2012
Global warming has been linked to dramatic environmental changes, particularly in polar marine environments, where water temperatures and sea-ice cover are especially affected. Using satellite telemetry, we investigated how local changes in sea-surface temperatures (2002- 2004) affected the movement patterns of belugas Delphinapterus leucas in eastern Hudson Bay (EHB), Canada. Of 26 whales equipped with satellite transmitters, 17 had records that ex tended beyond the summer season and showed a fall migration pattern. During summer, foraging activity of individuals was either aggregated, at small spatial scales of <90 km (Strategy A), or dispersed, at larger spatial scales of >120 km (Strategy D). In 2002 and 2003, belugas preferentially selected cold water temperatures <4°C, while, in 2004, no selection occurred. In 2002-2003, the range of water temperatures was larger than in 2004. Moreover, while cold waters were found mainly to the north of the Belcher Islands in 2002-2003, cold waters were broadly scattered throughout the whole bay in 2004. Independent of year, animals employing Strategy A left their summer habitat late (31 October, ±14 d), while those using Strategy D left about 3 wk earlier (4 October, ±2 d). In 2002-2003, the range of water temperatures was larger than in 2004. Moreover, while cold waters were found mainly to the north of the Belcher Islands in 2002-2003, cold waters were broadly scattered throughout the whole bay in 2004. Therefore, it appeared that the strategy used in summer, and hence the migration timing among EHB belugas, was related to sea-surface temperature conditions. Although other factors may also trigger migration, the present study is among the first to reveal a relationship between environmental conditions and habitat use and the migration patterns of beluga whales. Consequently, this work indicates alterations in a well-established migration phenology due to longer term effects of climate change on this Arctic species. © Inter-Research 2012.
Foster G.,SAC Consulting Veterinary Services |
Higgins R.,University of Montréal |
Leclair D.,Makivik Corporation |
Korczak B.M.,University of Bern |
And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2011
Phenotypic and phylogenetic studies were performed on eight Gram-negative-staining, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from seals. Biochemical and physiological studies showed identical profiles for all of the isolates and indicated that they were related to the family Pasteurellaceae. 16S rRNA gene sequencing demonstrated that the organism represented a distinct cluster with two sublines within the family Pasteurellaceae with,<96% sequence similarity to any recognized species. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) including rpoB, infB and recN genes further confirmed these findings with the eight isolates forming a genus-like cluster with two branches. Genome relatedness as deduced from recN gene sequences suggested that the isolates represented a new genus with two species. On the basis of the results of the phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic criteria, it is proposed that these bacteria from seals are classified as Bisgaardia hudsonensis gen. nov., sp. nov. (the type species) and Bisgaardia genomospecies 1. The G+C content of the DNA was 39.5 mol%. The type strain of Bisgaardia hudsonensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is M327/99/2 T (=CCUG 43067 T=NCTC 13475 T598-D-690B T) and the reference strain of Bisgaardia genomospecies 1 is M1765/96/5 (5CCUG 595515NCTC 13474). © 2011 IUMS.
Lemire M.,Laval University |
Kwan M.,Makivik Corporation |
Laouan-Sidi A.E.,Laval University |
Muckle G.,Laval University |
And 4 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2015
Country foods are central to Inuit culture and replete in selenium (Se) and long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n. -. 3 PUFA). However, some marine country foods bioaccumulate high concentrations of methylmercury (MeHg). Se and n. -. 3 are associated with several health benefits in Nunavik, Northern Quebec, but, recent studies show that prenatal MeHg exposure is associated with visual, cognitive and behavioral deficit later in childhood.The study objectives are to identify contemporary country food sources of MeHg, Se and long-chain n. -. 3 PUFA in Nunavik, particularly among childbearing-age women, taking into account regional differences in consumption profiles. The contribution of different country foods to daily MeHg, Se, long-chain n. -. 3 PUFA intake (μg/kg body weight/day) was estimated using: (i) country food consumption and blood biomarkers data from the 2004 Nunavik Health Survey (387 women, 315 men), and (ii) data on MeHg, Se, long-chain n. -. 3 PUFA concentrations found in Nunavik wildlife species.In the region where most traditional beluga hunting takes place in Nunavik, the prevalence of at-risk blood Hg (≥. 8. μg/L) in childbearing-age women was 78.4%. While most country foods presently consumed contain low MeHg, beluga meat, not a staple of the Inuit diet, is the most important contributor to MeHg: up to two-thirds of MeHg intake in the beluga-hunting region (0.66 of MeHg intake) and to about one-third in other regions. In contrast, seal liver and beluga mattaaq - beluga skin and blubber - only mildly contributed to MeHg (between 0.06 and 0.15 of MeHg intake), depending on the region. Beluga mattaaq also highly contributed to Se intake (0.30 of Se intake). Arctic char, beluga blubber and mattaaq, and seal blubber contributed to most long-chain n. -. 3 PUFA intake.This study highlights the importance of considering interconnections between local ecosystems and dietary habits to develop recommendations and interventions promoting country foods' benefits, while minimizing the risk of MeHg from beluga meat, especially for childbearing-age women. © 2014.
Davidson R.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute |
Simard M.,Makivik Corporation |
Kutz S.J.,University of Calgary |
Kapel C.M.O.,Copenhagen University |
And 2 more authors.
Trends in Parasitology | Year: 2011
The significant impact on human and animal health from parasitic infections in tropical regions is well known, but parasites of medical and veterinary importance are also found in the Arctic. Subsistence hunting and inadequate food inspection can expose people of the Arctic to foodborne parasites. Parasitic infections can influence the health of wildlife populations and thereby food security. The low ecological diversity that characterizes the Arctic imparts vulnerability. In addition, parasitic invasions and altered transmission of endemic parasites are evident and anticipated to continue under current climate changes, manifesting as pathogen range expansion, host switching, and/or disease emergence or reduction. However, Arctic ecosystems can provide useful models for understanding climate-induced shifts in host-parasite ecology in other regions. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Karpiej K.,University of Gdansk |
Simard M.,Makivik Corporation |
Pufall E.,University of Guelph |
Rokicki J.,University of Gdansk
Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom | Year: 2014
As many Arctic fish species are intermediate hosts of anisakids, they are present in the diet of the ringed seal, Pusa hispida, and the bearded seal, Erignathus barbatus. Parasitic nematodes from the stomachs of 66 seals caught in the Nunavut region (Canada) from two communities (Arviat and Sanikiluaq) from October 2007 to January 2008 have been examined in order to identify the epidemiological risk for Inuit communities who consume traditional food. In Arviat 2428 anisakids were observed in 37 seals, while in Sanikiluaq 316 Anisakidae were isolated from 29 seals. The worms were treated with a host tissue, washed in deionized water and stored until analysis in 70% ethanol. The parasites were divided into three parts. The anterior and posterior parts were stored in 70% ethanol containing 5% glycerol and were examined using a light microscope by evaporation of the ethanol/glycerin mixture. The central parts were prepared for molecular identification by fixing in 70% ethanol. Using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method, the following members of the family Anisakidae were identified: Contracaecum osculatum A and C and Pseudoterranova bulbosa. In the studied material, more adult worms were noted than larval stages. The most numerous nematodes were P. bulbosa, and mixed infection was observed. The mean prevalence of anisakids infection was 43.2% in the Arviat and 37.9% in the Sanikiluaq communities. © 2013 Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom .