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Gale S.W.,Makino Botanical Garden | Li J.,Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden | Kinoshita A.,Tsukuba Botanical Garden | Yukawa T.,Tsukuba Botanical Garden
Systematic Botany

Widespread and poorly studied species complexes confound phylogenetic understanding of the Old World terrestrial orchid genus Nervilia. Recent taxonomic studies have suggested greater species richness in Asia than previously envisaged.We used morphological, cytological, and molecular phylogenetic analyses to confirm the existence of a novel, cryptic species of the Nervilia adolphi-punctata species alliance in southwest Japan, supporting earlier findings from a genetic fingerprinting study. Nervilia futago is formally described and illustrated here. In the vegetative state, the new species is practically inseparable from the more widespread N. nipponica, with which it co-occurs at several sites, but it can be distinguished in flower by its glabrous petals, by the lack of tall clavate hairs on the lip, and by the placement of the pollinia on the stigma prior to anthesis. Chromosome numbers and DNA content also differ. Despite their wide geographic separation, sequence data indicate greater affinity of N. futago to Himalayan members of the alliance than to other species of East Asia. The utility of genetic approaches in resolving identities and relationships in this taxonomically intractable genus is emphasised. © Copyright 2015 by the American Society of Plant Taxonomists. Source

Ito T.,Ibaraki University | Nakamura K.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Park C.-H.,National Institute of Biological Resources | Song G.-P.,Jeju Environment Research Institute | And 3 more authors.

Our molecular phylogeographic analyses based on the nrDNA ITS and cpDNA trnLF of Sedum tosaense populations in the Shikoku District, Japan and Jeju Island, Korea suggested a disjunct distribution. Plants of S. tosaense from the two regions comprised a well-supported clade consisted of plants from Kochi (Shikoku District) and those from Jeju Island; we estimated a divergence time of 0.61 Ma between the Kochi and Jeju populations based on the ITS and partial trnLF. We conclude that: 1) S. tosaense has a disjunct distribution between Kochi and Jeju Island, and 2) plants of this species might have dispersed between Kochi and Jeju Island over water, but not via a land bridge, which flooded before subclade divergence. © 2014 Magnolia Press. Source

Fujikawa K.,Makino Botanical Garden | Kodama R.,Makino Botanical Garden | Noguchi S.,Makino Botanical Garden | Okada M.,Makino Botanical Garden | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Japanese Botany

As a part of our botanical inventory program, field surveys of supposedly sibling entities of Chinese/Japanese herbal medicinal species were carried out. From our collections seven species, Coptis aspleniifolia Salisb. (Ranunculaceae), Paeonia brownii Douglas ex Hook. (Paeoniaceae), Gentiana sceptrum Griseb. (Gentianaceae), Nuphar polysepala Engelm. (Nymphaeaceae), Fritillaria affinis (Schultes) Sealy, F. camtschatcensis Sweet and F. pudica Spreng. (Liliaceaé) were studied taxonomically in comparison with their Asian counterpart taxa. Related chemical analyses were made by means of thin-layer chromatography, colour test by Dragendroff's reagent and/or in part high performance liquid chromatography. The chemical analyses proved the existence of active components within three species, suggesting certain possibilities in using these North American plants as substitutes of medicinal plants of Japanese Pharmacopeia. Source

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