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Kampala, Uganda

Makerere University Kampala is Uganda's largest and third-oldest institution of higher learning, first established as a technical school in 1922 , and is now part of Uganda Christian University. In 1963, it became the University of East Africa, offering courses leading to general degrees from the University of London. It became an independent national university in 1970 when the University of East Africa was split into three independent universities: University of Nairobi , University of Dar es Salaam , and Makerere University. Today, Makerere University is composed of 9 Colleges and one school offering programmes for about 36,000 undergraduates and 4,000 postgraduates.Makerere was home to many post-independence African leaders, including former Ugandan president Milton Obote and late Tanzanian president Julius Nyerere. Former Tanzanian president Benjamin Mkapa current president of the DRC Joseph Kabila and the former Kenyan President Mwai Kibaki are also Makerere alumni.In the years immediately after Uganda's independence, Makerere University was a focal point for the literary activity that was central to African nationalist culture. Some prominent writers, including Nuruddin Farah, Ali Mazrui, David Rubadiri, Okello Oculi, Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o, John Ruganda, Paul Theroux, V. S. Naipaul and Peter Nazareth, were at Makerere University at one point in their writing and academic careers. Wikipedia.

Muhanguzi F.K.,Makerere University
Culture, Health and Sexuality | Year: 2011

Sexuality is part and parcel of students' experiences of schooling manifested in personal friendships, relations and social interaction. These encounters constitute sites within which sexual identities are developed, practiced and actively produced through processes of negotiation. Drawing on qualitative research conducted in 14 selected secondary schools in Central and Western Uganda, the study illuminates gendered sexual vulnerability within patterns of social interaction and young girls gendered experiences and negotiation of their sexuality. The study reveals that through social and discursive practices, students construct complex gendered relations of domination and subordination that position boys and girls differently, often creating gender inequalities and sexual vulnerability for those gendered as girls. Girls' vulnerability is characterized by confusing and traumatic experiences fraught with double standards and silences. Typical of these experiences are complex tensions and contradictions surrounding constructions of sexuality that are predicated upon unequal power and gender relations characterised by homophobia, misogyny, control of female sexuality and sexual abuse and exploitation, all which work against girls' expression of sexuality. Gender sensitive sexuality education is identified as a valuable site of intervention to address such vulnerabilities and promote gender equality and equity in society. © 2011 Taylor & Francis. Source

Purpose - The general objective of this study was to examine the influence of airline service quality on passenger satisfaction and loyalty. To achieve this, the research was guided by four specific objectives to which data collection was effected mainly by interview method using fully structured questionnaires. Design/methodology/approach - The study used random sampling technique and it covered 303 respondents on international flights using Entebbe International Airport. Data were analyzed using statistical package for social sciences 16, were w2 was used to test the hypothesis and regression analysis was performed to examine the relationships between variables. Findings - Findings indicated that the quality of pre-flight, in-flight and post-flight services had a statistically significant effect on passenger satisfaction. In addition to that, passenger satisfaction as a mediating variable also had a significant effect on passenger loyalty. It was noted that passenger satisfaction differed from person to person as some were more interested in off board facilities, others onboard, others in the quality of food while others wanted more extra luggage. Originality/value - It was recommended that airline management should consider developing various strategies for improving service quality based on demographic characteristics of the customers such as occupation, age, gender and education level. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source

The WHO estimates that more than 80% of African populations attend traditional healers for health reasons and that 40%-60% of these have some kind of mental illness. However, little is known about the profiles and outcome of this traditional approach to treatment. The purpose of this study was to describe the profiles and outcome of traditional healing practices for severe mental illnesses in Jinja and Iganga districts in the Busoga region of Eastern Uganda. Four studies were conducted. Study I used focus group discussions (FGDs) with case vignettes with local community members and traditional healers to explore the lay concepts of psychosis. Studies II and III concerned a cross-sectional survey of patients above 18 years at the traditional healer's shrines and study IV was made on a prospective cohort of patients diagnosed with psychosis in study III. Manual content analysis was used in study I; quantitative data in studies II, III, and IV were analyzed at univariate, bivariate, and multivariate levels to determine the association between psychological distress and socio-demographic factors; for study IV, factors associated with outcome were analyzed. One-way ANOVA for independent samples was the analysis used in Study IV. The community gave indigenous names to psychoses (mania, schizophrenia, and psychotic depression) and had multiple explanatory models for them. Thus multiple solutions for these problems were sought. Of the 387 respondents, the prevalence of psychological distress was 65.1%, where 60.2% had diagnosable current mental illness, and 16.3% had had one disorder in their lifetime. Over 80% of patients with psychosis used both biomedical and traditional healing systems. Those who combined these two systems seemed to have a better outcome. All the symptom scales showed a percentage reduction of more than 20% at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Traditional healers shoulder a large burden of care of patients with mental health problems. This calls for all those who share the goal of improving the mental health of individuals to engage with traditional healers. Source

Bukirwa H.,Makerere University
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2014

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that people with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria are treated using Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT). ACT combines three-days of a short-acting artemisinin derivative with a longer-acting antimalarial which has a different mode of action. Pyronaridine has been reported as an effective antimalarial over two decades of use in parts of Asia, and is currently being evaluated as a partner drug for artesunate. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of artesunate-pyronaridine compared to alternative ACTs for treating people with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in The Cochrane Library; MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS; ClinicalTrials.gov; the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT); and the WHO International Clinical Trials Search Portal up to 16 January 2014. We searched reference lists and conference abstracts, and contacted experts for information about ongoing and unpublished trials. Randomized controlled trials of artesunate-pyronaridine versus other ACTs in adults and children with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria.For the safety analysis, we also included adverse events data from trials comparing any treatment regimen containing pyronaridine with regimens not containing pyronaridine. Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias, and extracted data. We combined dichotomous data using risk ratios (RR) and continuous data using mean differences (MD), and presented all results with a 95% confidence interval (CI). We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. We included six randomized controlled trials enrolling 3718 children and adults. Artesunate-pyronaridine versus artemether-lumefantrineIn two multicentre trials, enrolling mainly older children and adults from west and south-central Africa, both artesunate-pyronaridine and artemether-lumefantrine had fewer than 5% PCR adjusted treatment failures during 42 days of follow-up, with no differences between groups (two trials, 1472 participants, low quality evidence). There were fewer new infections during the first 28 days in those given artesunate-pyronaridine (PCR-unadjusted treatment failure: RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.90, two trials, 1720 participants, moderate quality evidence), but no difference was detected over the whole 42 day follow-up (two trials, 1691 participants, moderate quality evidence). Artesunate-pyronaridine versus artesunate plus mefloquineIn one multicentre trial, enrolling mainly older children and adults from South East Asia, both artesunate-pyronaridine and artesunate plus mefloquine had fewer than 5% PCR adjusted treatment failures during 28 days follow-up (one trial, 1187 participants, moderate quality evidence). PCR-adjusted treatment failures were 6% by day 42 for these treated with artesunate-pyronaridine, and 4% for those with artesunate-mefloquine (RR 1.64, 95% CI 0.89 to 3.00, one trial, 1116 participants, low quality evidence). Again, there were fewer new infections during the first 28 days in those given artesunate-pyronaridine (PCR-unadjusted treatment failure: RR 0.35, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.73, one trial, 1720 participants, moderate quality evidence), but no differences were detected over the whole 42 days (one trial, 1146 participants, low quality evidence). Adverse effectsSerious adverse events were uncommon in these trials, with no difference detected between artesunate-pyronaridine and comparator ACTs. The analysis of liver function tests showed biochemical elevation were four times more frequent with artesunate-pyronaridine than with the other antimalarials (RR 4.17, 95% CI 1.38 to 12.62, four trials, 3523 participants, moderate quality evidence). Artesunate-pyronaridine performed well in these trials compared to artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate plus mefloquine, with PCR-adjusted treatment failure at day 28 below the 5% standard set by the WHO. Further efficacy and safety studies in African and Asian children are required to clarify whether this combination is an option for first-line treatment. Source

Most new HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa now occur in married and cohabiting couples, many of whom do not realize that only one of them may be infected with HIV. HIV-negative individuals living in stable HIV-discordant partnerships (in which one partner is HIV-infected while the other one is not) are twice as likely to get infected with HIV as those living in concordant HIV-negative relationships. Since HIV transmission occurs mainly from HIV-infected persons who are unaware of their status, a combination of interventions including behavioral and biomedical interventions is urgently needed to increase knowledge of HIV status as well as reduce the risk of HIV transmission within married and cohabiting couples. Behavioral interventions include promotion of couples' counseling, testing and disclosure; condom promotion as well as alcohol risk-reduction, while biomedical interventions include provision of antiretroviral treatment to the HIV-infected partner, medical male circumcision and treatment of sexually transmitted infections. Since no single intervention can turn around the current HIV tide in married and cohabiting couples, we argue for the inclusion of these interventions in a combination prevention package for married and cohabiting HIV-discordant couples in sub-Saharan Africa. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. Source

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