Efficacy and safety of ceftazidime-avibactam versus imipenem-cilastatin in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections, including acute pyelonephritis, in hospitalized adults: Results of a prospective, investigator-blinded, randomized study
Vazquez J.A.,Ford Motor Company |
Gonzalez Patzan L.D.,Centro Medico Militar |
Stricklin D.,Four Rivers Clinical Research Inc. |
Duttaroy D.D.,Medical College Baroda |
And 3 more authors.
Current Medical Research and Opinion | Year: 2012
Objectives: The aim of this prospective phase II, randomized, investigator-blinded study (NCT00690378) was to compare the efficacy and safety of ceftazidime-avibactam and imipenem-cilastatin in hospitalized adults with serious complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI) due to Gram-negative pathogens. Patients and methods: Patients aged between 18 and 90 years with cUTI were enrolled and stratified by infection type (acute pyelonephritis or other cUTI) and randomized 1:1 to receive intravenous ceftazidime 500mg plus avibactam 125mg every 8 hours or imipenem-cilastatin 500mg every 6 hours. Patients meeting pre-specified improvement criteria after 4 days could be switched to oral ciprofloxacin. Patients were treated for a total of 7-14 days. The primary efficacy objective was a favorable microbiological response at the test-of-cure (TOC) visit 5-9 days post-therapy in microbiologically evaluable (ME) patients. Results: Overall, 135 patients received study therapy (safety population); 62 were included in the ME population (ceftazidime-avibactam, n=27; imipenem-cilastatin, n=35). The predominant uropathogen was Escherichia coli. Favorable microbiological response was achieved in 70.4% of ME patients receiving ceftazidime-avibactam and 71.4% receiving imipenem-cilastatin at the TOC visit (observed difference-1.1% [95% CI:-27.2%, 25.0%]). Among ME patients with ceftazidime-resistant uropathogens, response was observed in 6/7 (85.7%) receiving ceftazidime-avibactam. Adverse events were observed in 67.6% and 76.1% of patients receiving ceftazidime-avibactam and imipenem-cilastatin, respectively. Limitations of the study include the small number of patients in the ME population. Conclusion: The results suggest that the efficacy and safety of ceftazidime-avibactam may be similar to that of imipenem-cilastatin. © 2012 Informa UK Ltd All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.
Nahida E.-R.,Makassed General Hospital |
Guy L.,Biology and Pathology Center
Acta Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics | Year: 2011
Pseudo-Bartter's (PB) syndrome characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis and persistent failure to thrive constitutes a rare typical presentation of cystic fibrosis (CF) with prevalence of 16.8%. We present a case of CF presenting with failure to thrive, dehydration, PB syndrome associated with chest infection and primo-colonization with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Sweat chloride test was 102 mmol/L. DNA analysis identified 2 mutations 3849 + 1G>A (intron 19) and 4382delA (exon 24) present in heterozygous status. To the best of our knowledge, our case is the first reported case in the literature of CF manifested by PB syndrome associated with chest infection and primo-colonization with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusion: The genotype 3849 + 1G>A/4382delA found in our patient is described for the first time in the literature. It explains the lung involvement with the dehydration and electrolyte disturbances. The role of the mutation in exon 24 in cases of CF with PB syndrome remains to be determined. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Pædiatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Pædiatrica.
Richardson J.,Royal Infirmary |
Lnnqvist P.A.,Karolinska Institutet |
Naja Z.,Makassed General Hospital
British Journal of Anaesthesia | Year: 2011
SummaryParavertebral nerve blocks (PVBs) can provide excellent intraoperative anaesthetic and postoperative analgesic conditions with less adverse effects and fewer contraindications than central neural blocks. Most published data are related to unilateral PVB, but its potential as a bilateral technique has been demonstrated. Bilateral PVB has been used successfully in the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic regions, sometimes obviating the need for general anaesthesia. We have reviewed the use of bilateral PVB in association with surgery and chronic pain therapy. This covers 12 published studies with a total of 538 patients, and with varied methods and outcome measures. Despite the need for relatively large doses of local anaesthetics, there are no reports of systemic toxicity. The incidence of complications such as pneumothorax and hypotension is low. More studies on the use of bilateral PVB are required. © The Author . Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved.
Zaraket R.,Makassed General Hospital
Croatian medical journal | Year: 2011
To assess parental perceptions and beliefs about asthma in children. We invited 6000 children aged 3 to 15 years from different schools in Lebanon to participate in the study from September 2007 to May 2008. In the first phase, in order to determine the prevalence of asthma in children, parents of all participating children filled out a small questionnaire. In the second phase, only parents of children with asthma filled out a detailed questionnaire about their perceptions of asthma. Phase I included parents of 4051 children, 574 (14%) of whom had asthma and were recruited to phase II. Out of these, 389 parents entered the final data analysis. Around 54% of parents believed that asthma was hereditary and 7% believed it was contagious. When asked about triggering factors, 51% stated virus infection, 75% dust, and 17% food. Sixty percent of children with asthma lived with someone who smoked. Sixty-seven percent of parents believed that herbs had a role in asthma treatment and only 49% received asthma education. There was a significant difference in education level (P=0.01) between the parents who denied the label of asthma (79%) and those who accepted it (21%). Sixty-seven percent of parents preferred oral over inhaler treatment, 48% believed inhalers were addictive, 56% worried about inhalers' side effects, and 76% worried about using inhaled corticosteroids. Significantly more parents from rural (53%) than from urban areas (38%) believed that inhalers were addictive (P=0.004). Parents of children with asthma had considerable misperceptions about the use of inhalers and the safety of inhaled corticosteroids. To improve asthma care in children, it is necessary to provide adequate education to parents.
Bachour P.,Lebanese University |
Yafawi R.,Makassed General Hospital |
Jaber F.,Lebanese University |
Choueiri E.,Lebanese Association for Public Safety |
Abdel-Razzak Z.,Lebanese University
Breastfeeding Medicine | Year: 2012
Aim: This study investigated the effect of smoking, mother's age, body mass index (BMI), and parity number on density, lipids, proteins, and secreted immunoglobulin A (SIgA) of human milk. Methods: Transitional and mature milk samples were collected from 23 nursing smoker mothers and 43 nursing nonsmoker mothers. Proteins, lipids, and SIgA concentrations were determined as well as the milk density and the general protein profile. Results: Our investigation showed that the milk of smokers contained less lipids and proteins (statistically significant 26% and 12% decrease, respectively), whereas milk density was unchanged. SIgA concentration was 27% lower in milk from smokers, but the decrease was not statistically significant. The general protein profile showed no significant smoking-associated changes in the four identified proteins (β-casein, immunoglobulin A heavy chain, serum albumin, and lactoferrin). Mothers' age and residential area showed noticeable but statistically nonsignificant differences in some of the measured parameters. However, parity number, lactation stage, and BMI were associated with a significant modification of milk composition. Mature milk contained more lipids and less protein, whereas the increase of parity number was associated with an increase in lipid concentration. The group of overweight mothers showed lower milk protein concentration in comparison with the normal group. Multivariate analysis showed a statistically significant interaction effect of the variables (smoking, parity number, lactation stage, age, and BMI) on lipids and between some of them on proteins and SIgA. Conclusion: Our study showed that smoking was associated with lower milk lipid and protein concentrations and that the parity number and BMI were associated with a change in milk lipids and proteins content, respectively. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.