Reed J.,Center for International Forestry Research |
Reed J.,Lancaster University |
Van Vianen J.,Center for International Forestry Research |
Deakin E.L.,Majestic |
And 3 more authors.
Global Change Biology | Year: 2016
Poverty, food insecurity, climate change and biodiversity loss continue to persist as the primary environmental and social challenges faced by the global community. As such, there is a growing acknowledgement that conventional sectorial approaches to addressing often inter-connected social, environmental, economic and political challenges are proving insufficient. An alternative is to focus on integrated solutions at landscape scales or ‘landscape approaches’. The appeal of landscape approaches has resulted in the production of a significant body of literature in recent decades, yet confusion over terminology, application and utility persists. Focusing on the tropics, we systematically reviewed the literature to: (i) disentangle the historical development and theory behind the framework of the landscape approach and how it has progressed into its current iteration, (ii) establish lessons learned from previous land management strategies, (iii) determine the barriers that currently restrict implementation of the landscape approach and (iv) provide recommendations for how the landscape approach can contribute towards the fulfilment of the goals of international policy processes. This review suggests that, despite some barriers to implementation, a landscape approach has considerable potential to meet social and environmental objectives at local scales while aiding national commitments to addressing ongoing global challenges. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd
Brook M.S.,Massey University |
Geografiska Annaler, Series A: Physical Geography | Year: 2012
Depending on thickness, debris-cover can enhance or reduce ablation, compared to bare-ice conditions. In the geological record, hummocky moraines often represent the final product of the melt-out of ice-cored moraines, and the presence or absence of such moraine deposits can have paleoclimatic implications. To evaluate the effects of varying debris-cover and climate on ice-melt in a maritime mid-latitude setting, an 11-day ablation stake study was undertaken on ice-cored moraine at Fox Glacier, on the western flank of the New Zealand Southern Alps. Ablation rates varied from 1.3 to 6.7cmd -1, with enhancement of melt-rate under thin debris-covers. Highest melt-rates (effective thickness) occurred under debris-cover of c.2cm, with ∼3cm being the debris thickness at which melt-rates are equal to adjacent bare-ice (critical thickness). Air temperature from nearby Franz Josef Glacier allowed for a simple degree-day approach to ablation calculations, with regression relationships indicating air temperature is the key climatic control on melt. Digital elevation models produced from topographic surveys of the ice-cored moraine over the following 19 months indicated that ablation rates progressively decreased over time, probably due to melt-out of englacial debris increasing debris-cover thickness. The morphology of the sandur appears to be strongly determined by episodic high-magnitude fluvial flows (jökulhlaups), in conjunction with surface melt. Thus, 'hummocky' moraine appears to be a transient landform in this climatic setting. © The authors 2011. Geografiska Annaler: Series A, Physical Geography © 2011 Swedish Society for Anthropology and Geography.
Majestic | Date: 2016-06-28
Majestic | Date: 2016-03-22
Paints, lacquers and varnishes; Sealer coatings for concrete, wood and brick; Stains for use as a coating on wood; Catalyst hardener for use with paints; Diluent for use with paints; primer coatings and rust preventative coatings.
Majestic | Date: 2016-07-12
Mugs. Preparation of food and beverages.