Morgounov A.,CIMMYT |
Akin B.,CIMMYT |
Demir L.,Maize Research Station |
Keser M.,ICARDA |
And 7 more authors.
Crop and Pasture Science | Year: 2015
In three independent experiments in Turkey and Kazakhstan, winter wheat germplasm with variable degrees of resistance to leaf rust was subjected to fungicide protection. The yield loss of genotypes susceptible to leaf rust varied from 30% to 60% depending on the environment and severity of infection. Genotypes completely or moderately resistant to leaf rust also responded positively to fungicide protection, with average yield increases in the range 10-30%. This increase was observed even in one season without leaf rust infection. The main character affected by fungicide was 1000-kernel weight. There was stable expression of the magnitude of yield gain in resistant genotypes in different seasons, confirming genetic variation for this trait. Possible mechanisms of yield gain from fungicide protection in resistant genotypes are related to a positive physiological effect of the chemical used as well as a possible 'cost of resistance' to wheat plants. The magnitude of yield gain by resistant germplasm justifies its capture in breeding programs to develop varieties resistant to diseases and with greater benefits from the fungicide protection. © 2015 CSIRO.
Shin M.-H.,Korea Rural Community Corporation in Daejeon |
Hwang H.-S.,Seoul National University |
Lee I.-B.,Seoul National University |
Seo Y.-H.,Maize Research Station |
Kim M.-K.,Seoul National University
Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry | Year: 2013
Halophyte community was established for dust prevention in Saemangeum reclaimed land from 2006 to 2008. In the present study, the functions of halophyte community were examined on-site in aspects of dust collection and nutrient absorption. In dust collection experiments, total suspended particulate (TSP) decreased through transplanted halophyte community and the reduction effect continued to 50 m leeward, which was 5.6 times of plant height. TSP reduction behind in-situ halophyte communities amounted to 25.6% on seven-monthly average. TSP collected within four halophyte communities varied among halophytic species in the field. Harvested in the reclaimed land, halophytic samples contained significant amount of nitrogen (0.84 to 1.71% of dry weight), P2O5 (0.05 to 0.21% of dry weight), and Na+ (0.08 to 3.20% of dry weight). On the basis of halophyte community area in 2006, the amount of total nitrogen, P2O5 and Na+ absorbed by Suaeda asparagoides was estimated up to 404,000, 47,000, and 498,000 kg, respectively. These results implied that halophyte communities are capable of both collecting significant dust particulates and absorbing of nitrogen, phosphorus, and sodium in the reclaimed land. © 2013 The Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry.
Kolmer J.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Mert Z.,The Central Research Institute for Field Crops |
Akan K.,The Central Research Institute for Field Crops |
Demir L.,Maize Research Station |
And 5 more authors.
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2013
Leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina is a common disease on wheat in the coastal regions of Turkey. Collections of P. triticina from infected wheat leaves were obtained from the main wheat production zones of Turkey in 2009 and 2010. A total of 104 single uredinial isolates were tested for virulence on 20 lines of Thatcher wheat that differ for single leaf rust resistance genes. Forty-four different virulence phenotypes were identified over both years. Four phenotypes were found in both years. Phenotype FHPTQ found in 2009, with virulence to genes Lr2c, Lr3, Lr16, Lr26, Lr3ka, Lr17a, Lr30, LrB, Lr10, Lr14a, Lr18, Lr3bg, and Lr14b, was the most common phenotype at 15. 4 % of the total isolates. Forty-three winter and spring wheat cultivars from Turkey were tested as seedlings with 13 different P. triticina virulence phenotypes from Canada, the US and Turkey. The infection types on the cultivars were compared with infection types on the Thatcher near isogenic lines to postulate the presence of seedling leaf rust resistance genes in the cultivars. Resistance genes Lr1, Lr3a, Lr10, Lr14a, Lr17a, Lr20, Lr23, and Lr26 were postulated to be present in the Turkish wheat cultivars. DNA of the wheat cultivars was tested with PCR markers to determine the presence of the adult plant resistance genes Lr34 and Lr37. Marker data indicated the presence of Lr34 in 20 cultivars and Lr37 in three cultivars. Field plot evaluations of the wheat cultivars indicated that no single Lr gene conditioned highly effective leaf rust resistance. Resistant cultivars varied for combinations of seedling and adult plant resistance genes. © 2012 KNPV.
Sree Rekha M.,Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University |
Pradeep T.,Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University |
Pradeep T.,Maize Research station
Indian Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2012
A field trial was conducted for three seasons from 2006-07 to 2008-09 with an objective to find out the response of hybrid Bt Bunny to three different nitrogen levels (120, 150 and 180 kg ha-1) and scheduling of nitrogen in five equal splits at 25 days interval viz., 15-40-65-90-115 days after sowing (DAS),20-45-70-95-100 DAS and 25-50-75-100-125 DAS under rainfed conditions at Scheduling of nitrogen from 20 or 25 days after sowing gave significantly higher seed cotton yield (3592 kg ha-1 and 3630 kg ha-1) than scheduling nitrogen from 15 DAS with seed cotton yield of 3138 kg ha-1. The other parameters like number of monopodia and sympodia per plant, boll number and boll weight were not influenced by nitrogen scheduling. Nitrogen application at different levels did not influence the seed cotton yield, number of monopodia and sympodia per plant , boll number and boll weight. However, the seed cotton yield ranged from 3300 kg ha-1 to 3600 kg ha-1 indicating the potentiality of the hybrid Bt Bunny. No significant interaction among the different variables for any treatment combination was observed. However, the net returns and BC ratio were highest for nitrogen at 180 kg ha-1 and scheduling from25 DAS.