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Vujovic T.,Serbian Institute of Physiology | Ruzic Dj.,Serbian Institute of Physiology | Cerovic R.,Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje
Horticultural Science | Year: 2012

In vitro shoots of vegetative rootstocks for cherry (Gisela 5 and Gisela 6), plum (Fereley Jaspi) and pear (Pyrodwarf) were repeatedly subcultured for 10 subcultures on Murashige and Skoog medium of unchanged hormonal composition. Shoot formation capacity decreased over repeated subculturing in all genotypes, The first significant decrease in multiplication index was observed after first subculture in Gisela 6 and Fereley Jaspi, while in Gisela 5 the decline occurred after second subculture, and remained at that level. As for Gisela 6 and Fereley Jaspi, multiplication index was mainly stable from second to forth subculture, whereupon the second decline in shoot formation was observed. Although Pyrodwarf showed very low multiplication capacity, shoot multiplication slightly increased over the first three subcultures and then declined. This irreversible decline could be due to residual effects of hormones. However, no visible morphological variations or aberrations of shoots were found in successive subcultures in any genotype. Quality of shoots in terms of shoot length varied during subculturing, but the highest quality was observed in later subcultures (from fifth subculture onwards). After subculturing, several media were evaluated for induction of rhizogenesis in order to achieve high rooting rates in tested rootstocks. The highest rooting ability (100%) among genotypes was observed in Fereley Jaspi, followed by Pyrodwarf and Gisela 6 (the best rooting percentage being 90% in both) and Gisela 5 (70%). Rooted shoots were successfully acclimatized under the mist system in greenhouse. Source

Vujovic T.,Fruit Research Institute | Cerovic R.,Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje | Ruzic D.,Fruit Research Institute
Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture | Year: 2012

The capacity of regeneration of adventitious shoots from leaf explants was studied in sour cherry 'Čačanski Rubin' (Prunus cerasus L.) and cherry rootstock Gisela 5 (P. cerasus × P. canescens). Regeneration assay included thirty different combinations of plant growth regulators. 6-benzyladenine (BA) and thidiazuron (TDZ) were applied either individually or each combined with different concentrations of indole-3-butyric acid, α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). 'Čačanski Rubin' showed higher regeneration capacity in comparison with Gisela 5 regarding the total number of treatments inducing regeneration as well as the highest frequency of regeneration achieved. In both genotypes, 8. 9 μM BA was more effective than both 4. 5 and 9. 0 μM TDZ in inducing adventitious regeneration, but only when combined with auxins. The highest frequency of regeneration (20. 8 %) in 'Čačanski Rubin' was achieved on medium supplemented with 8. 9 μM BA combined with 5. 4 μM NAA, while in Gisela 5 the highest value (8. 3 %) was obtained when BA was combined with 4. 5 μM 2,4-D. Flow cytometry combined with 4′-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining was employed to estimate DNA ploidy levels and relative nuclear DNA content in adventitious regeneration-derived shoots, in vitro shoots of axillary origin and in vivo control plants from open field. No significant differences in nuclear DNA content were detected among plants of different origin. Chromosome counting in root tip meristems also showed normal tetraploid chromosome number (2n = 4x = 32) in 'Čačanski Rubin' shoots and normal triploid chromosome number (2n = 3x = 24) in Gisela 5 shoots regenerated in vitro. The results obtained suggest that no major genetic instability occurred during adventitious regeneration under the described experimental conditions. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Mikic A.,Serbian Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops | Peric V.,Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje
Turkish Journal of Field Crops | Year: 2011

On their way to both Europe and Caucasus, during the 7th and 6th millennia BC, the most ancient Old World grain legume crops, such as pea (Pisum sativum L.), lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) and faba bean (Vicia faba L.), passed through the region of modern Turkey but also spread towards the original Altaic, and then, Turkic homeland. The assumption that at least some of these crops were known to the ancestors of the modern Turkic nations is confirmed by attesting the Proto-Altaic *bǔkrV, denoting pea and its descendant the Proto-Turkic *burčak, being responsible for all the words denoting pea in the majority of the modern Turkic languages and the borrowed Hungarian borsó. The Proto-Altaic root *zi{dot below}ǎbsa, denoting lentil, gave the Proto-Turkic, *jasi-muk, with the same meaning and with numerous, morphologically well-preserved descendants in modern Turkic languages. Source

Yadav O.P.,Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje
Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2014

Limitation of water is major abiotic factor affecting crop productivity in different parts of world. Climate change is likely to make drought stress even more severe in the future, particularly in semi-arid and arid tropics.Therefore, development of crops with better adaptation to water stress is very critical to have sustainable crop production. An attempt is made here to assess different approaches undertaken to enhance crop performance under waterlimited conditions. Improving drought tolerance during reproductive phase is often a high priority in crop breeding programmes targeting drought-prone areas. Empirical approach followed in different crops to enhance drought tolerance has mainly addressed the issue of environment for selection and of criteria for improving drought adaptation. Using evaluation data from drought stressed and non-stressed environments, many studies highlighted importance of evaluation and selection in drought-prone locations. Most physiological research has concentrated on the identification of parameters that have found little place in regular breeding programmes owing to the lack of simple and easy techniques for selecting such characters on a large scale. Use of adapted germplasm has played a pivotal role in developing drought tolerant crops. The introgression of elite genetic material into drought-adapted germplasm has also been established as an effective approach to enhance performance under drought without compromising performance under stressfree environments. Molecular breeding is fast emerging as a supplement approach to enhance drought adaptation at a faster rate with greater precision. Efforts in this direction started with the development of a molecular marker-based genetic linkage maps in major food crops followed by identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) determining yield under drought environments. Further success would depend upon development of repeatable, low-cost, high throughput phenotyping procedures that reliably characterize genetic variation for drought tolerance and its component traits. © 2014, Indian Society of Genetics and Plant Breeding. All rights reserved. Source

Andjelkovic V.,Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje | Ignjatovic-Micic D.,Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje
Scientia Agricola | Year: 2011

Molecular and metabolic response of plants to a combination of two abiotic stresses is unique and cannot be directly extrapolated from the response of plants to each of the stresses individually. cDNA macroarray has become a useful tool to analyze expression profiles and compare the similarities and differences of various expression patterns. A macroarray of approximately 2,500 maize (Zea mays L.) cDNAs was used for transcriptome profiling in response to single and simultaneous application of water and high temperature stress of maize developing kernels at 15 days after pollination. All stress treatments (water stress-WS, heat stress-HS and their combined application-CS) induced changes in expression of 106 transcripts with 54 upregulated and 52 down-regulated. There were 11 up-regulated and 15 down-regulated transcripts in common for all three stresses. Although these common transcripts showed existence of a mutual mechanism in stress response, the 23 transcripts induced only in CS indicate that plants responded in a different manner when exposed to simultaneous effects of both stresses. A glimpse of functions regulated under WS, HS and CS is provided, and also the common and different responses between individual and simultaneous stresses. Source

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