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Chaudhary D.P.,Maize Research | Kumar D.,Wheat Research | Verma R.P.S.,Wheat Research | Langyan S.,Maize Research | Sangwan S.,CCS Haryana Agricultural University
Maize: Nutrition Dynamics and Novel Uses | Year: 2014

Malting is the process of converting cereal into malt. Barley is the most preferred malted grain because of its high enzyme content needed for the conversion of grain starch to malt. Wheat, rye, oats and rice are the other cereal grains used for this purpose. Maize kernels are rich in starch (≈70 %). The abundance of starch in maize stimulates researchers to evolve improved technological interventions for the better conversion of maize to malt. Inadequate diastatic power and the immature breakage of plumule before the complete endosperm modification of maize kernel are the major hurdles in selecting maize for malting purpose. Maize is used as an adjunct in the production of beer. Breeding maize for malting and the evolution of improved technology for proper endosperm modification are needed for the efficient conversion of maize to malt. © 2014 Springer India. All rights reserved.


Kumar R.,Maize Research
Journal of Environmental Biology | Year: 2015

Genetic diversity of 49 maize inbreds was assessed using twelve ISSR primers. A wide variation in PCR products was revealed in terms of size (280 to 3000bp), extent of polymorphism (94.87%) and number of bands (4-9). As a whole, 78 ISSR bands were produced (including four monomorphic bands) with an average of 6.5 bands per primer and the maximum number of bands (9) being produced by primer OUAT-8. Five ISSR primers (OUAT-8, OUAT-9, OUAT-15, OUAT 17 and OUAT-18) revealed higher PIC value (around 0.70) along with 100% polymorphism indicating better allelic diversity. While, ISSR primer OUAT- 15 revealed higher number of polymorphic bands (8) with 100% polymorphism as well as considerably high PIC and Rp values. Thus, such an informative and discriminative primer is of immense value for the study of genetic diversity in a set of maize genotypes. The similarity index values ranged from 0.3 to 0.9 with an average of 0.522 and BQPM-1-14 maintained the highest genetic distance as revealed from its lowest average similarity coefficient value (0.393) with rest of the genotypes. BQPM 1-14, BQPM 1-8, BQPM 3- 10, BQPM 6-8 and B 1110-7-2 were identified to be highly divergent among the test inbreds which could be sorted out as valuable materials for heterosis breeding for production of single cross hybrids. © Triveni Enterprises, Lucknow (India).


Parihar A.K.,Indian Institute of Pulses Research | Parihar C.M.,Maize Research
Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2012

The effects of different moisture stress conditions on performance of 85 quality protein maize (QPM) genotypes were measured. Significant variations among the genotypes were observed for grain yield/plant and quality traits (protein, lysine. tryptophan).The study showed that hybrids NP-06-07R-74-10-1-1 × HO6R-6136-64-1-4-1 and NP-06-07R -73-6-1#1 × HO6R-6136-64-1-4-1 gave superior performance in all the environments with respect to yield, economic heterosis and percentage loss in stress. The inbreds viz., (CML 161 × CLQ-6203) B-4-1-1-B-2-B-1 and HO6R-6136-64-1-4-1 were best for grain yield, while, the inbreds NP-06-07R -76-11-2-1, NP-06-07R -73-6-1#1 and (CML 161 × CLQ-6203)B-4-1-1-B-2-B-1 were best for both lysine and tryptophan. The correlation between different moisture stress conditions and quality traits was positive. A single cross hybrid NP-06-07R -73-6-1#1 × HO6R-6136- 64-1-4-1 was identified as superior for grain yield/plant, lysine and tryptophan contents in all the environments as compared to best check HQPM-5.


Chandra A.,Maize Research | Singh S.B.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Kumar P.,Maize Research
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2013

2,4-Dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazine-3-one (DIMBOA) known for its antibiotic properties against many pests and diseases in maize plant was extracted from different varieties. In one of the extraction methods of DIMBOA from maize leaves, Amberlite XAD7, an adsorbent, was used for extracting this and it gave a pure fraction containing DIMBOA. The adsorbent Amberlite XAD, being an expensive material, was uneconomical for processing a large number of samples. Therefore, one of the reported solvent extraction method was modified to make the extraction procedure cost effective without losing the target compounds. Using the modified method, DIMBOA was extracted for different varieties under dark and light condition. Results showed that high concentrations of DIMBOA were extracted from plants grown in dark condition as compared to plants grown in light indicating that light played significant role in inhibition of DIMBOA. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Khokhar M.K.,Maize Research | Hooda K.S.,Maize Research | Sharma S.S.,Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology | Singh V.,Maize Research
Maydica | Year: 2014

Post flowering stalk rot complex is one of the most serious, destructive and widespread group of diseases in maize and yield losses range from 10 to 42% and can be as high as 100% in some areas. PFSR nature is often complex as a number of fungi (like Fusarium verticillioides cause Fusarium stalk rot, Macrophomina phaseolina cause charcoal rot, Harpophora maydis cause late wilt) are involved in causation of the diseases. To combat this problem, identification of quantitative trait loci for resistance to PFSR would facilitate the development of disease resistant maize hybrids. Moreover, various chemical and biological control methods have been developed but major emphasis is on development of maize cultivars with genetic resistance to for environment friendly control of the Post flowering stalk rot complex. The current paper reviews the information on distribution, impact of the disease, symptoms, epidemiology, disease cycle; genetics of resistance and integrated disease management approaches has been enumerated to understand the present status of knowledge about PFSR complex and will try to focus on the future perspectives available to improve PFSR management. © 2014 Consiglio per la Ricercame la sperimentazione in Agrcoltura. All rights reserved.


Zaidi P.H.,Maize Research | Zaidi P.H.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Maniselvan P.,Maize Research | Srivastava A.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | And 3 more authors.
Maydica | Year: 2010

Approximately 80% of maize (Zea mays L.) in South and Southeast Asia is grown as a rain-fed crop, where temporary excessive soil moisture or water-logging during the summer-rainy season is one of the major production constraints in large areas of this region. The present genetic study analyzed the tolerance of tropical maize to water-logging stress. Elite maize inbred lines with known stable performance in terms of improved grain yield under water-logging stress were crossed using half-diallel (7 × 7) and line × tester (8 × 3) mating designs, in which four lines were common in both the mating designs. F1 progenies (excluding reciprocals) and their parents were evaluated under managed water-logging stress at knee high stage (V7-8 growth stage) at the maize research farm, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India (28.4°N, 77.1°E, 228.1 masl). In addition, the same set of entries was simultaneously evaluated under a normal moisture regime. Analysis showed that both general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) effects were statistically significant. However, the GCA effect was comparatively higher (P<0.01) than the SCA effect (P<0.05). This result suggests that both additive and non-additive factors affect the expression of tolerance to water-logging stress in tropical maize. Analysis of the diallel and L × T dataset showed that water-logging tolerance in maize followed an additive-dominance genetic model, with additive gene effects dominating. Our findings suggest that reciprocal recurrent selection would be an effective approach for improving water-logging tolerance in tropical maize. Evaluating S1 progeny per se and their test-crosses under managed water-logging stress, discarding susceptible fraction and combining the selected best lines in terms of per se and test-cross performance could result in improved water-logging tolerant population. The new lines derived from the improved population could be used in developing water-logging tolerant synthetic varieties to exploit the additive gene effects and hybrids to exploit the non-additive gene action.


Santosh H.B.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Sekhar J.C.,Maize Research | Rakshit S.,Maize Research | Rakshit S.,Sorghum Research | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2012

Pink borer (Sesamia inferens Walker) is a major insect pest of winter maize across the peninsular India. In India winter season maize is more productive than rainy season maize. Thus, control of this insect pest assumes wide importance in ensuring higher maize productivity in India. Among various control measures resistance breeding is one of the most viable and sustainable options to control this insect pest. In the present investigation response of 48 promising maize inbred lines belonging to diverse sources to pink borer was analyzed and reported for the first time the inheritance pattern of resistance against pink borer in maize. Out of the 48 inbred lines screened under artificial infestation following standard technique, eight were found to be resistant to pink borer with leaf injury rating (LIR) score less than 3.0, while 16 were moderately resistant and 24 were highly susceptible. Generation mean analysis of a cross between E 62 and CML 451 revealed presence of negative additive and dominance effects, and positive additive × dominance (j) and dominance × dominance (l) epistatic interaction effects. Based on the findings pedigree and population improvement breeding with low selection intensity in early generations are suggested to develop new pink borer resistant lines. Single cross hybrids with lower pink borer susceptibility are feasible to develop with use of at least one of the resistant parent.


Mahajan V.,Maize Research | Chikkappa G.K.,Maize Research | Kumar B.,Maize Research | Kumar R.S.,Maize Research | And 3 more authors.
Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2012

Nineteen maize single cross hybrids were evaluated in northern India under severe cold stress in natural conditions during rabi 2010-11. Data were recorded on yellowing of leaves, drying of leaves and level of growth at seedling stage at two stages viz. immediately after sever cold and frosting, and after the temperature has slightly increased to observe the recovery in maize plants. Vivek Hybrid 9, Vivek QPM 9 and JH 3459 in early/extra-early maturity, HM 9 in medium maturity and HM10 and Seed Tech 2324 in late maturity group are suitable for sowing in the winter season. Yellowing of leaves caused by cold spell proved to be an important parameter to judge cold tolerance at vegetative stage.


Kumar L.,Research Center for Makhana | Choudhary A.K.,Research Center for Makhana | Bhatt B.P.,Research Center for Makhana | Bhatt B.P.,Maize Research | Singh K.P.,Research Center for Makhana
Indian Journal of Horticulture | Year: 2015

Makhana (Euryale ferox Salisb.) is an important aquatic cash crop of eastern India. During 2009-10 and 2010-11, an attempt was made to study genetic divergence among 36 makhana genotypes using Mahalanobis D2-statistic at ICAR-RCER, Research Centre for Makhana, Darbhanga (Bihar). Experiments were conducted in field condition in Randomized Block Design with three replications. Data were recorded on 14 morpho-physiological traits, viz., days to germination, days to initiation of flowering, days to 50% flowering, days to 100% flowering, days to initiation of fruit bursting, leaf diameter (cm), fruit diameter (cm), fruits per plant, seeds per fruit, seeds per plant, seed yield per fruit (g), seed yield per plant (g), 100-seed weight (g) and seed diameter (cm). On the basis of D2 values, these genotypes were grouped into seven clusters. The clustering pattern indicated that cluster I and cluster II were the largest ones accommodating ten genotypes each. While clusters IV and VI were observed the smallest one with single genotype. The highest inter-cluster D2 values was observed between cluster III and VII (423.20) followed by cluster III and IV (379.69), indicating wider genetic diversity among the groups. The highest intra-cluster D2 values were observed for the cluster VII (75.90) and the lowest in cluster IV and VII (0.00). Among 14 traits studied, 100-seed weight was observed to have highest contribution (57.30%) towards genetic divergence followed by seeds/ fruit (18.25%) and fruit diameter (17.46%). The results suggested that genotypes BR-5 of cluster III and BR-1 of cluster VII could be the most suitable parents for development of high yielding varieties of makhana through hybridization. © 2015, Horticulture Society of India. All rights reserved.

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