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News Article | May 2, 2017

New research published in the May 2017 issue of the Journal of Leukocyte Biology provides another reason why smoking tobacco is harmful. In the report, researchers from Denmark show that smokers have reduced levels of mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, a cell type involved in autoimmune diseases. Not only does this information shed more light on the effects of smoking, but it also reveals possible strategies to mitigate these effects. "We believe that our study represents an important contribution to the understanding of systemic immune cell alterations in smokers," said Cecilie Ammitzbøll, M.D., Ph.D., a researcher involved in the work from the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Center in Copenhagen, Denmark. "From our findings we hope that focused research in specific cell populations might reveal pathogenic mechanisms contributing to the understanding of diseases associated with smoking." To make their discovery, scientists investigated circulating immune cells from cohorts of healthy individuals and patients with multiple sclerosis. The researchers looked for differences in smokers compared with non-smokers and found that the frequencies of certain cell types were altered. These findings were evident in both healthy individuals and patients with multiple sclerosis. Further, by using two different techniques, the scientists found that T cells from smokers were not more easily activated when they encountered foreign- and self-antigens. "It is clear that smoking is detrimental to overall health and can predispose to many diseases," said John Wherry, Ph.D., Deputy Editor of the Journal of Leukocyte Biology. "These new studies shed like on how smoking can also influence the immune system, an effect that may have implications in autoimmunity and also in other settings such as cancer and chronic inflammatory diseases." The Journal of Leukocyte Biology publishes peer-reviewed manuscripts on original investigations focusing on the cellular and molecular biology of leukocytes and on the origins, the developmental biology, biochemistry and functions of granulocytes, lymphocytes, mononuclear phagocytes and other cells involved in host defense and inflammation. The Journal of Leukocyte Biology is published by the Society for Leukocyte Biology. Details: Cecilie Ammitzbøll, Lars Börnsen, Jeppe Romme Christensen, Rikke Ratzer, Birgitte Romme Nielsen, Helle B. Søndergaard, Marina R. von Essen, and Finn Sellebjerg. Smoking reduces circulating CD26hiCD161hi MAIT cells in healthy individuals and patients with multiple sclerosis. J. Leukoc. Biol. May 2017 101:1211-1220; doi:10.1189/jlb.3A0616-267R ; http://www.

Jain V.,MAIT | Sachdeva G.,National Institute of Technology Kurukshetra
Journal of Energy in Southern Africa | Year: 2014

In a present study, the performance of a vapour compression-absorption cascaded refrigeration system (CRS) under fouled conditions was analysed. The main effect of fouling is to decrease the effectiveness of the heat exchanger. Thus, the overall conductance (UA) of the heat exchanger is decreased. Hence, another interpretation of fouling is to reduce the effective size of the heat exchanger. In the present work, the percentage decrease in the overall conductance value (UA) of evaporator and condenser due to their fouling is varied from 0 to 50% and its consequences on various aspects of CRS are generated to ascertain any possible patterns. The detailed first law analysis reveals that for a clean evaporator and condenser, the electricity consumption is 67.5% less than vapour compression system (VCS) for the same cooling capacity. CRS is able to save only 61.3% of electrical energy when evaporator and condenser conductance is reduced by 50% due to fouling. Evaporator and condenser fouling decreased the COP and rational efficiency of the system by 4.7% and 10.5% respectively. It is also important to note that irreversibility in the evaporator and condenser is increased by 42.4% and 62.1% respectively, when their individual performance is degraded by 50% due to fouling.

Ahmad J.,MAIT | Prasad D.,Jamia Millia Islamia University
Contemporary Engineering Sciences | Year: 2015

In this paper we present new applications of voltage differencing voltage transconductanse amplifier (VDVTA) as current-mode (CM) biquad filter and electronically controllable sinusoidal oscillator (ECSO) using single VDVTA and with four passive components, three passive components respectively. The biquad circuit realizes low pass, high pass, and band pass filter simultaneously without changing the circuit topology. The oscillator circuit also enjoys the explicit current output and also the frequency is electronically controllable. The active and passive sensitivities for both circuits are very low. Both the circuits are simulated using PSPICE with TSMC CMOS 0.18 μm process parameter. © 2015 Javed Ahmad and Dinesh Prasad.

News Article | February 8, 2017

Australian researchers are a step closer to understanding immune sensitivities to well-known, and commonly prescribed, medications. Many drugs are successfully used to treat diseases, but can also have harmful side effects. While it has been known that some drugs can unpredictably impact on the functioning of the immune system, our understanding of this process has been unclear. The team investigated what drugs might activate a specialised type of immune cell, the MAIT cell (Mucosal associated invariant T cell). They found that some drugs prevented the MAIT cells from detecting infections (their main role in our immune system), while other drugs activated the immune system, which may be undesirable. The results, published in Nature Immunology overnight, may lead to a much better understanding of, and an explanation for, immune reactions by some people to certain kinds of drugs. The findings may also offer a way to control the actions of MAIT cells in certain illnesses for more positive patient outcomes. The multidisciplinary team of researchers are part of the ARC Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging, and stem from Monash University, The University of Melbourne and The University of Queensland. Access to national research infrastructure, including the Australian synchrotron, was instrumental to the success of this Australian research team. Dr Andrew Keller from Monash University's Biomedicine Discovery Institute said that T cells are an integral part of the body's immune system. "They protect the body by 'checking' other cells for signs of infection and activating the immune system when they detect an invader," he said. "This arrangement is dependent on both the T cells knowing what they're looking for, and the other cells in the body giving them useful information." PhD student Weijun Xu from The University of Queensland's Institute for Molecular Bioscience used computer modelling to predict chemical structures, drugs and drug-like molecules that might impact on MAIT cell function. Such small compounds included salicylates, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like diclofenac, and drug metabolites. University of Melbourne Dr Sidonia Eckle from the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity said the implications point to possible links between known drug hypersensitivities and MAIT cells. "A greater understanding of the interaction between MAIT cells and other host cells will hopefully allow us to better predict and avoid therapeutics that influence and cause harm," she said. "It also offers the tantalising prospect of future therapies that manipulate MAIT cell behaviour, for example, by enhancing or suppressing immune responses to achieve beneficial clinical outcome." Article: Drugs and drug-like molecules can modulate the function of mucosal-associated invariant T cells, Andrew N Keller, Sidonia B G Eckle, Weijun Xu, Ligong Liu, Victoria A Hughes, Jeffrey Y W Mak, Bronwyn S Meehan, Troi Pediongco, Richard W Birkinshaw, Zhenjun Chen, Huimeng Wang, Criselle D'Souza, Lars Kjer-Nielsen, Nicholas A Gherardin, Dale I Godfrey, Lyudmila Kostenko, Alexandra J Corbett, Anthony W Purcell, David P Fairlie, James McCluskey & Jamie Rossjohn, Nature Immunology, doi:10.1038/ni.3679, published online 6 February 2017.

Sehgal S.,BMIET | Acharya V.,MAIT
2014 IEEE Students' Conference on Electrical, Electronics and Computer Science, SCEECS 2014 | Year: 2014

Elevators are used as main connectivity unit of the floors, in malls, offices, industries and, buildings of the hospital. Generally, the chip based controllers are used to control the working of the elevator system. These controllers have some sharp specifications which cannot be maintained at all the time and, that's why faults occur from time to time. So, Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is implemented in place of embedded system. PLC can easily withstand the faulty situation occurred in industrial environment and easily maintain all the specific requirement of the elevator system. In the present work, the ladder programming is used for PLC. It has very simple and handy programming, i.e., if we want to increase, decrease or skip any floor then program can change as per our requirements. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) is also used to supervise and control the working of the elevator. If somehow any fault occurs then SCADA itself identifies the fault position and generates an alarm. The response on the fault can be taken within no time by interfacing PLC and SCADA with the elevator system. © 2014 IEEE.

Sehgal S.,BMIET | Acharya V.,MAIT
2014 IEEE Students' Conference on Electrical, Electronics and Computer Science, SCEECS 2014 | Year: 2014

This paper presents the characterization, and modelling of the volumetric balance equation contributing to the elaboration of Continuous Stirred Tank Heater (CSTH) plant. The conventional Proportional Integral (PI) controller technique is used to control the physical variables such as cold water valve position, and the liquid level in the tank of the CSTH plant. The controller is designed and implemented using Simulink in Matlab to achieve the operational objective of the CSTH process. The response of CSTH with and without PI controller is compared. © 2014 IEEE.

Hote Y.V.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Gupta J.R.P.,University of Delhi | Choudhury D.R.,M.A.I.T.
Journal of Control Theory and Applications | Year: 2011

In this paper, a technique is presented to determine the stability margin of the discrete systems using recursive algorithm for power of companion matrix and Gerschgorin Theorem and hence sufficient condition of stability is obtained. The method is illustrated with an example and it is compared with other methods proposed in the literature. The results have applications in the filter design. © 2011 South China University of Technology, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Gautam R.,University of Delhi | Saxena M.,University of Delhi | Gupta R.S.,MAIT | Gupta M.,University of Delhi
IEEE Electron Device Letters | Year: 2012

In this letter, a dielectric-modulated GAA MOSFET with vacuum gate dielectric is proposed for enhanced sensitivity for label-free detection of neutral and charged biomolecules. We developed an analytical model to model the response of GAA MOSFET in the presence of biomolecules. The model is verified with simulation results of ATLAS-3-D. Results indicate that GAA MOSFET biosensor with vacuum gate dielectric is able to serve as a highly sensitive low-power label-free biosensor along with advantages of robustness, reliability, and CMOS compatibility. © 1980-2012 IEEE.

Khanna A.,MAIT | Singh A.K.,National Institute of Technology Kurukshetra | Swaroop A.,Galgotias University
Journal of Information Science and Engineering | Year: 2014

The κ-local mutual exclusion is a generalization of local mutual exclusion problem introduced by Attiya et al.. In κ-local mutual exclusion, it is assumed that the κ identical copies of a resource are shared among the geographically close nodes. The paper proposes a solution to the κ-local mutual exclusion problem in MANETs. The algorithm uses a leader-based approach and the leader is equipped with a token. It is suited to handle mobility that triggers the dynamism in topology of ad hoc networks. The algorithm satisfies safety, starvation freedom and l-deadlock avoidance properties. The best case message complexity of our algorithm is O(1) whereas the worst case message complexity is O(N). To the best of our knowledge, it is the first algorithm to solve κ-local mutual exclusion problem in MANETs. The solution to token loss problem is also included in the present exposition.

Gupta M.,NSIT | Aggarwal B.,MAIT | Gupta A.K.,National Institute of Technology Kurukshetra
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing | Year: 2013

This paper presents a novel high performance self-biased cascode current mirror (CM) for CMOS technology. The proposed circuit shows a resistance compensated high bandwidth CM operating at low voltages. This circuit uses super cascode configuration to obtain high output impedance required for high performance of CM. Active implementation of passive resistances of the proposed circuit is shown. The simulations of proposed CM are carried out by Mentor Graphics Eldospice based on TSMC 0.18 μm CMOS technology, for input current range of 0-500 μA. A bandwidth of 2.26 GHz, input and output resistances of 679 and 482 M respectively, are obtained with a single supply voltage of -1 V. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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