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Portland, ME, United States

Barber J.C.K.,University of Southampton | Rosenfeld J.A.,Perkin Elmer Corporation | Foulds N.,University of Southampton | Laird S.,Wessex Regional Genetics Laboratory | And 18 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2013

The 8p23.1 duplication syndrome is a relatively rare genomic condition that has been confirmed with molecular cytogenetic methods in only 11 probands and five family members. Here, we describe another prenatal and five postnatal patients with de novo 8p23.1 duplications analyzed with oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (oaCGH). Of the common features, mild or moderate developmental delays and/or learning difficulties have been found in 11/12 postnatal probands, a variable degree of mild dysmorphism in 8/12 and congenital heart disease (CHD) in 4/5 prenatal and 3/12 postnatal probands. Behavioral problems, cleft lip and/or palate, macrocephaly, and seizures were confirmed as additional features among the new patients, and novel features included neonatal respiratory distress, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), ocular anomalies, balance problems, hypotonia, and hydrocele. The core duplication of 3.68Mb contains 31 genes and microRNAs of which only GATA4, TNKS, SOX7, and XKR6 are likely to be dosage sensitive genes and MIR124-1 and MIR598 have been implicated in neurocognitive phenotypes. A combination of the duplication of GATA4, SOX7, and related genes may account for the variable penetrance of CHD. Two of the duplications were maternal and intrachromosomal in origin with maternal heterozygosity for the common inversion between the repeats in 8p23.1. These additional patients and the absence of the 8p23.1 duplications in published controls, indicate that the 8p23.1 duplication syndrome may now be considered a pathogenic copy number variation (pCNV) with an estimated population prevalence of 1 in 58,000. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Ballif B.C.,Signature | Theisen A.,Signature | Rosenfeld J.A.,Signature | Traylor R.N.,Signature | And 22 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2010

Segmental duplications, which comprise ∼5%-10% of the human genome, are known to mediate medically relevant deletions, duplications, and inversions through nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR) and have been suggested to be hot spots in chromosome evolution and human genomic instability. We report seven individuals with microdeletions at 17q23.1q23.2, identified by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Six of the seven deletions are ∼2.2 Mb in size and flanked by large segmental duplications of >98% sequence identity and in the same orientation. One of the deletions is ∼2.8 Mb in size and is flanked on the distal side by a segmental duplication, whereas the proximal breakpoint falls between segmental duplications. These characteristics suggest that NAHR mediated six out of seven of these rearrangements. These individuals have common features, including mild to moderate developmental delay (particularly speech delay), microcephaly, postnatal growth retardation, heart defects, and hand, foot, and limb abnormalities. Although all individuals had at least mild dysmorphic facial features, there was no characteristic constellation of features that would elicit clinical suspicion of a specific disorder. The identification of common clinical features suggests that microdeletions at 17q23.1q23.2 constitute a novel syndrome. Furthermore, the inclusion in the minimal deletion region of TBX2 and TBX4, transcription factors belonging to a family of genes implicated in a variety of developmental pathways including those of heart and limb, suggests that these genes may play an important role in the phenotype of this emerging syndrome. © 2010 The American Society of Human Genetics. Source

Nitschke Y.,University of Munster | Baujat G.,University of Paris Descartes | Botschen U.,University of Munster | Wittkampf T.,University of Munster | And 28 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2012

Spontaneous pathologic arterial calcifications in childhood can occur in generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI) or in pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE). GACI is associated with biallelic mutations in ENPP1 in the majority of cases, whereas mutations in ABCC6 are known to cause PXE. However, the genetic basis in subsets of both disease phenotypes remains elusive. We hypothesized that GACI and PXE are in a closely related spectrum of disease. We used a standardized questionnaire to retrospectively evaluate the phenotype of 92 probands with a clinical history of GACI. We obtained the ENPP1 genotype by conventional sequencing. In those patients with less than two disease-causing ENPP1 mutations, we sequenced ABCC6. We observed that three GACI patients who carried biallelic ENPP1 mutations developed typical signs of PXE between 5 and 8 years of age; these signs included angioid streaks and pseudoxanthomatous skin lesions. In 28 patients, no disease-causing ENPP1 mutation was found. In 14 of these patients, we detected pathogenic ABCC6 mutations (biallelic mutations in eight patients, monoallelic mutations in six patients). Thus, ABCC6 mutations account for a significant subset of GACI patients, and ENPP1 mutations can also be associated with PXE lesions in school-aged children. Based on the considerable overlap of genotype and phenotype of GACI and PXE, both entities appear to reflect two ends of a clinical spectrum of ectopic calcification and other organ pathologies, rather than two distinct disorders. ABCC6 and ENPP1 mutations might lead to alterations of the same physiological pathways in tissues beyond the artery. © 2012 The American Society of Human Genetics. Source

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