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Jammu, India

Sharma S.,Main Campus | Pannu C.J.S.,Punjab Agricultural University
AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America | Year: 2014

A metering system was developed for a precision cotton planter. The developed metering system plants two water soaked hybrid cotton seeds per hill. The exact size of the groove was selected based on the physical properties of the soaked cotton seeds. The metering mechanism of the precision cotton planter was evaluated in the laboratory for the seed distribution pattern at three angles of seed metering plate with horizontal 40° 45° and 50°) and three forward speeds (2.0, 3.0 & 4.0 km/h). The 45° angle of inclination of seed metering plate with horizontal and forward speed of 3.0 km/h resulted into highest percentage of two seeds/drop (56.03%), low percentage of no seed/drop (2.53%) and one seed/ drop (15.43%) and reasonably low percentage of more than two seeds/drop (26.01%) as compared to other combinations. The developed precision cotton planter was evaluated in field at an angle of 45° of metering plate with horizontal and a forward speed of 3.0 km/h. The results indicated that field evaluation of developed metering system of precision cotton planter resulted in to 45.10, 27.13, 4.54 and 23.23% germinated hills as singles, doubles, multiples and missing against the laboratory evaluation results of 15.94, 57.03, 27.01 and 2,53%, respectively. The percentage of singles, doubles and missing for manual planting were 38.89, 27.78 and 33.33%, respectively. Source


Sharma S.,Main Campus | Manhas S.S.,Punjab Agricultural University | Sharma R.M.,Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwa Vidhyalay | Lohan S.K.,Main Campus
AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America | Year: 2014

Farmers apply various agricultural inputs like seeds, fertilizers, weedicides, pesticides and water, based on recommendations emanating from research and field trials under specific agro-climatic conditions, which have been extrapolated to a regional level. Since soil types, soil nutrient status, weeds density, pests infestations and soil water vary not only between regions and between farms but also from plot to plot and within a field or plot, hence, there is a need to take into account such variability while going to cultivate a particular crop. The goal is to obtain more efficient use of applied inputs to improve economics to reduce any excess application that might cause environmental pollution. Agricultural technologies using the global positioning system (GPS) and geographic information systems (GIS) have started to change how farmers are managing crops. By utilizing these tools with an objective to manage existing field variability, variable-rate technology (VRT) has been evolved. VRT combines a variable-rate (VR) control system with application equipment to apply inputs at a precise time and/or location to achieve site-specific application rates of inputs. VR mounted on equipment, permits input application rates to be varied across fields in an attempt to site-specifically manage field variability. This type of strategy can reduce input usage and environmental impacts along with increasing efficiency and providing economic viability. A VRT essentially comprises of a locator (DGPS receiver), control computer and actuator (VRA software and controller) in an integrated manner to make VRT to work. Three different approaches exist to implement VRT viz: map-based, sensor-based and manual. The intra and inter field variability can be characterized by a number of factors like climatic conditions (hail, drought, rain, etc.), soils (texture, depth, nitrogen levels), cropping practices (no-till farming) and preventance of weeds and diseases. These factors can be assessed by two types of indicators (permanent indicators and point indicators). The permanent indicators are mainly soil indicators which provide the information about the main environmental constants. The point indicators helps to track a crop's status in terms of occurrence of water stress, nutrient stress, disease infestation, weed infestation, crop lodging etc. This information may derive from weather stations and other sensors (soil electrical resistivity, detection with the naked eye, satellite imagery etc.). Soil resistivity measurements combined with soil analysis make it possible to precisely map agro-pedological conditions. By catering to this variability, one can improve the productivity or reduce the cost of production and diminish the chance of environmental degradation caused by excess use of inputs. Source


Spirka T.,Main Campus | Spirka T.,Cleveland State University | Kenton K.,Loyola University Chicago | Brubaker L.,Loyola University Chicago | And 3 more authors.
Annals of Biomedical Engineering | Year: 2013

Stress urinary incontinence is a condition that affects mainly women and is characterized by the involuntary loss of urine in conjunction with an increase in abdominal pressure but in the absence of a bladder contraction. In spite of the large number of women affected by this condition, little is known regarding the mechanics associated with the maintenance of continence in women. Urodynamic measurements of the pressure acting on the bladder and the pressures developed within the bladder and the urethra offer a potential starting point for constructing computational models of the bladder and urethra during stress events. The measured pressures can be utilized in these models to provide information to specify loads and validate the models. The main goals of this study were to investigate the feasibility of incorporating human urodynamic pressure data into a computational model of the bladder and the urethra during a cough and determine if the resulting model could be validated through comparison of predicted and measured vesical pressure. The results of this study indicated that simplified models can predict vesical pressures that differ by less than 5 cmH2O (<10%) compared to urodynamic pressure measurements. In addition, varying material properties had a minimal impact on the vesical pressure and displacements predicted by the model. The latter finding limits the use of vesical pressure as a validation criterion since different parameters can yield similar results in the same model. However, the insensitivity of vesical pressure predictions to material properties ensures that the outcome of our models is not highly sensitive to tissue material properties, which are not well characterized. © 2012 Biomedical Engineering Society (Outside the U.S.). Source


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A third tour has been added to the Laboratory Design Conference agenda. The conference will be held April 25-27 in Houston, Texas. . Sign up to tour the Harris County Forensics facility (Existing DNA Laboratory and New Building): In January 2013, the Harris County Institute of Forensic Sciences opened its 15,000 sq. ft., state-of-the-art Forensics Genetics Laboratory within a renovated train bay of Houston’s historic Nabisco cookie plant, today known as the Texas Medical Center’s John P. McGovern Campus.  The location of the laboratory in the TMC campus allows for close collaboration with other renowned medical and research science faculties. The Institute’s Forensic Genetics Laboratory received a Certificate of Recognition for Excellence in Construction from the Texas Building Branch of the Associated General Contractors. The project consisted of 17,000 sq. ft. designed for Serology Labs, Extraction Labs, Evidence Receiving/Storage, and administrative space for the laboratory. Vaughn Construction is serving as the construction manager-at-risk, with Johnston L.L.C. as the architect. The new, 140,000 sq. ft. Main Campus of the Harris County Institute of Forensic Sciences is currently being constructed on a 3.2-acre site directly across from its existing location. The comprehensive planning process for the building, which will house both the Medical Examiner and Crime Laboratory services for Harris County, began in 2007 and incorporated experts from business, medical, laboratory and scientific fields. The resulting design culminates in an integrated use of space flowing seamlessly between clinical, laboratory, administrative, public and teaching/training areas. Consideration was also given to the exterior design of the facility to ensure it complements the aesthetics of neighboring institutions located on the Texas Medical Center Campus. The new Forensic Center is expected to be completed in 2017. Vaughn Construction is serving as the construction manager-at-risk, with Page/ as the architect. The other facilities offered as part of the Laboratory Design Conference's tour package are Brockman Hall for Physics at Rice University, and Texas Medical Center. Click here for more information about these facilities . Tours of exemplary lab facilities, including those to which attendees would not otherwise have access, are an integral part of the overall   experience. Breakfast and round-trip transportation from the hotel to these sites will be provided.

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