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Ortiz-Espejo M.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Perez-Navero J.L.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Olza-Meneses J.,University of Granada | Munoz-Villanueva M.C.,Maimonides Institute for Biomedical Research IMIBIC | And 2 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014

Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) may induce significant metabolic and inflammatory anomalies, increasing the risk of obesity and CVD later in life. Similarly, alterations in the adipose tissue may lead to metabolic changes in children with a history of extra-uterine growth restriction (EUGR). These mechanisms may induce alterations in immune response during early life. The aim of the present study was to compare pro-inflammatory markers in prepubertal EUGR children with those in a reference population. A total of thirty-eight prepubertal children with a history of EUGR and a reference group including 123 healthy age- and sex-matched children were selected. Perinatal data were examined. In the prepubertal stage, the concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers were measured in both groups. The serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and plasma concentrations of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein type 1 (MCP-1), neural growth factor, TNF-α and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 were determined. The plasma concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers CRP, HGF, IL-8, MCP-1 and TNF-α were higher in the EUGR group than in the reference group (P< 0·001). After adjustment for gestational age, birth weight and length, blood pressure values and TNF-α concentrations remained higher in the EUGR group than in the reference group. Therefore, further investigations should be conducted in EUGR children to evaluate the potential negative impact of metabolic, nutritional and pro-inflammatory changes induced by the EUGR condition. Copyright © The Authors 2014.

Ortiz-Espejo M.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Gil-Campos M.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Mesa M.D.,University of Granada | Garcia-Rodriguez C.E.,University of Granada | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014

Purpose: The role of oxidative stress is well known in the pathogenesis of acquired malnutrition. Intrauterine growth restriction has been associated with an imbalance in oxidative stress/antioxidant system. Therefore, early postnatal environment and, consequently, extrauterine growth restriction might be associated with alterations in the antioxidant defense system, even in the prepubertal stage. Methods: This is a descriptive, analytical, and observational case-control study. The study included two groups; 38 Caucasian prepubertal children born prematurely and with a history of extrauterine growth restriction as the case group, and 123 gender- and age-matched controls. Plasma exogenous antioxidant (retinol, β-carotene, and α-tocopherol) concentrations were measured by HPLC; antioxidant enzyme activities of catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase were determined in lysed erythrocytes by spectrophotometric techniques. Results: Catalase and glutathione peroxidase concentrations were significantly lower in extrauterine growth restriction children than in controls (P < 0.001). Lower plasma retinol concentrations were found in the case group (P = 0.029), while concentrations of β-carotene and α-tocopherol were higher (P < 0.001) in extrauterine growth restriction prepubertal children as compared with controls. After correction by gestational age, birth weight, and length, statistically significant differences were also found, except for retinol. Conclusions: Prepubertal children with a history of extrauterine growth restriction present alterations in their antioxidant defense system. Knowing these alterations may be important in establishing pharmacological and nutritional treatments as this situation might be associated with higher metabolic disorders in adulthood. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Llorente-Cantarero F.J.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Perez-Navero J.L.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Benitez-Sillero J.D.D.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Munoz-Villanueva M.C.,Maimonides Institute for Biomedical Research IMIBIC | Gil-Campos M.,University of Cordoba, Spain
Gender Medicine | Year: 2012

Background: Low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) are associated with a risk of the development of metabolic syndrome. Contradictory findings are reported in the literature regarding the influence of sex and CRF and PA on metabolic changes. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of CRF and PA on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism biomarkers in boys and girls. Methods: A total of 82 prepubertal boys and 55 girls (7-12 years of age) were classified according to sex, low or high CRF, and performance or nonperformance of PA. Anthropometric and blood pressure (BP) measurements, plasma lipid profile values, glucose and insulin levels, and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance were analyzed. Results: The percentage of boys with high CRF and performance of PA was higher than that of girls (P < 0.05). When children of the same sex were compared, higher values for body mass index and waist circumference z-scores were found for boys with low CRF compared with boys with high CRF (P < 0.001) without differences between girls, and in all groups classified by PA. Systolic and diastolic BPs were higher in boys than in girls, in both CRF and PA groups (P < 0.05). In the low CRF and no PA groups, girls had higher plasma glucose, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels than boys, with higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein A levels (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Sex in relation to CRF and PA could affect the plasma lipid profile. These changes in girls are associated with low CRF and low levels of PA. Considering these results, we suggest the need to improve CRF and promote PA, especially in girls, to reduce metabolic risk. © 2012 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc.

Ortiz-Espejo M.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Perez-Navero J.L.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Munoz-Villanueva M.C.,Maimonides Institute for Biomedical Research IMIBIC | Mercedes G.-C.,University of Cordoba, Spain
Early Human Development | Year: 2013

Background: Nutritional deficit during perinatal stage may induce significant alterations in adipose tissue and increase the risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease in children with a history of extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR). Aims: To describe the nutritional status in neonatal and prepubertal with a history of EUGR and establish an association between EUGR and later conditions. Study design: Descriptive, analytical, observational case-control study. Subjects: The study included a sample of 38 prepubertal children with a history of EUGR, and 123 gender-and-age matched controls. Outcome measures: The EUGR group was asked to answer a food frequency questionnaire. Analysis of body composition in both groups included anthropometric measurements, assessment of blood pressure and biochemical markers. Results: Newborns with EUGR received parenteral feeding with a standard nutritional regime and long-chain fatty acid support for 41. ±. 23. days; enteral feeding with a special formula for premature infants was initiated at 7. ±. 11. days of life. At the prepubertal stage, daily fiber and fatty acid intake in children who had experienced EUGR in the neonatal stage was below the recommended intake. In the EUGR group, the intake of vegetables, fruits and olive oil was below dietary recommendations, while the intake of butchery, fatty meats, pastries and snacks was above the recommendations for the Spanish population. Conclusions: Appropriate nutrition education strategies should be developed for children with a history of EUGR to prevent later associated pathologies, as neonatal nutritional support and feeding during childhood are associated with an increase in diseases in this risk group. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Rivero-Juarez A.,Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia Of Cordoba | Rivero-Juarez A.,Maimonides Institute for Biomedical Research IMIBIC | Mira J.A.,Hospital Universitario Of Valme | Santos-Gil I.,Hospital Universitario Of La Princesa | And 10 more authors.
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses | Year: 2013

We assessed the relationship between atazanavir (ATV)-based antiretroviral treatment (ART) and plasma hepatitis C virus (HCV) viral load in a population of HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. HIV/HCV-coinfected patients who received ART based on a protease inhibitor (PI) or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) were included. Patients were stratified by ART drug [ATV/rtv, lopinavir (LPV/rtv), efavirenz (EFV), nevirapine (NVP), and other PIs], HCV genotype (1/4 and 2/3), and IL28B genotype (CC and non-CC). The Kruskal-Wallis test and chi-squared test were used to compare continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Multivariate analysis consisted of a stepwise linear regression analysis. Six hundred and forty-nine HIV/HCV-coinfected patients were included. HCV genotype 1/4 patients who received ATV had higher HCV RNA levels [6.57 (5.9-6.8) log IU/ml] than those who received LPV [6.1 (5.5-6.5) log IU/ml], EFV [6.1 (5.6-6.4) log IU/ml], NVP [5.8 (5.5-5.9) log IU/ml], or other PIs [6.1 (5.7-6.4) log IU/ml] (p=0.014). This association held for the IL28B genotype (CC versus non-CC). The association was not found in patients carrying HCV genotypes 2/3. The linear regression model identified the IL28B genotype and ATV use as independent factors associated with HCV RNA levels. ATV-based therapy may be associated with a higher HCV RNA viral load in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. © 2013 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

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