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Fernandes R.J.,University of Porto | Figueiredo P.,University of Porto | Figueiredo P.,Higher Education Institute of Maia | Vilas-Boas J.P.,University of Porto
Journal of Physiological Sciences | Year: 2013

Pinna et al. (J Physiol Sci, 10.1007/s12576-012-0226-7, 2012) showed that a tethered swimming incremental protocol leads to higher maximal oxygen consumption values than during cycle ergometer and arm-crank tests, and evidenced that anaerobic threshold occurred at higher workloads during swimming comparing to other types of exercise. This is an interesting study in the field of exercise physiology applied to swimming that deserves merit once: (1) it employs direct gas exchange measurements during swimming, a rather hard task due to the characteristics of the water environment and the usual constraints imposed by the evaluation equipment, and (2) the physiologic comparison between swimming, running, cycling, and arm-cranking is complex, confirming that laboratory testing procedures are inadequate to estimate maximal oxygen consumption, maximal heart rate, and anaerobic threshold in swimming. However, in this Letter to the Editor, we would like to evidence some points that, in our opinion, are underdeveloped and not sufficiently clear, principally the incomplete description of the new breathing snorkel used, the non-reference to previous studies that used other snorkel models and obtained relevant data on oxygen uptake in swimming, and the assumption that swimmers uses less muscle mass when swimming than when running and cycling. © 2013 The Physiological Society of Japan and Springer Japan.

Sousa A.,University of Porto | de Jesus K.,University of Porto | Figueiredo P.,University of Porto | Figueiredo P.,Higher Education Institute of Maia | And 3 more authors.
Open Sports Sciences Journal | Year: 2013

Sousa et al. (Open Sports Sci J, 3: 22-24, 2010) showed that different time averaging intervals lead to distinct VO2 values in a maximal 200m front crawl effort, evidencing higher VO2 values for breath-by-breath sampling, and differences between this latter data acquisition and all the other less frequent time intervals studied (5, 10, 15 and 20 s). These are interesting outputs in the field of exercise physiology applied to swimming once: (1) VO2 assessment is conducted in a swimming pool with a portable gas analyser which allowed breath-by-breath measurements, and not in a swimming flume with a Douglas bag technique or mixing chamber analyser, as traditionally occurs, and (2) the comparison between different time-averaging intervals used to remove breath-by-breath fluctuations during exercise periods has remained neglected, in sport in general and swimming in particular. Therefore, in the present study, we investigate the influence that different time averaging intervals have in aerobic power related parameters (VO2peak and VO2max). Ten subjects performed 200m front crawl effort at supra-maximal intensities (all-out test) and other ten subjects performed 200m front crawl effort at maximal aerobic intensities (100% of VO2max).The intensity at which the 200m front crawl was performed (supra-maximal and maximal intensities) had a significant effect on VO2peak and VO2max values obtained for each averaging intervals studied. © Sousa et al.

Ferreira M.,University of Porto | Ferreira M.,North Polytechnic Institute of Health | Marques E.E.,University of Porto | Marques E.E.,Higher Education Institute of Maia | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation | Year: 2015

The physical therapy (PT) associated with standard drug treatment (SDT) in Bell palsy has never been investigated. Randomized controlled trials or quasirandomized controlled trials have compared facial PT (except treatments such as acupuncture and osteopathic) combined with SDT against a control group with SDT alone. Participants included those older than 15 yrs with a clinical diagnosis of Bell palsy, and the primary outcome measure was motor function recovery by the House-Brackmann scale. The methodologic quality of each study was also independently assessed by two reviewers using the PEDro scale. Four studies met the inclusion criteria. Three trials indicate that PT in association with SDT supports higher motor function recovery than SDTalone between 15 days and 1 yr of follow-up. On the other hand, one trial showed that electrical stimulation added to conventional PT with SDT did not influence treatment outcomes. The present review suggests that the current practice of Bell palsy treatment by PTassociated with SDT seems to have a positive effect on grade and time recovery compared with SDT alone. However, there is very little quality evidence from randomized controlled trials, and such evidence is insufficient to decide whether combined treatment is beneficial in the management of Bell palsy. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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