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Maha Sarakham, Thailand

Papong K.,Mahsarakham University | Boonpragob K.,Ramkhamhaeng University | Mangold A.,Ossastr. 6 | Divakar P.K.,Complutense University of Madrid | Lumbsch H.T.,Field Museum of Natural History

Twenty-six species recently described from Thailand are revised. Eleven taxa are reduced to synonymy with previously described species, including Leptotrema phaeosporum var. vainiona Rsnen. The following new combinations are proposed: Chapsa calathiformis (Vain.) Lumbsch & Papong, C. laemensis (Homchantara & Coppins) Lumbsch & Papong, Melanotrema melanophthalmum (Homchantara & Coppins) Lumbsch & Papong, Ocellularia albocincta (Hale) Divakar & Mangold, O. guianensis (Sipman) Divakar & Mangold, O. khunantensis (Homchantara & Coppins) Lumbsch & Papong, O. percolumellata (Sipman) Divakar & Mangold, O. subcalvescens (Nyl.) Divakar & Mangold and Ocellularia subgranulosa (Homchantara & Coppins) Lumbsch & Papong. Copyright © 2010 British Lichen Society. Source

Kraichak E.,Science and Education | Parnmen S.,Toxicology and Biochemistry Section | Lucking R.,Science and Education | Plata E.R.,Science and Education | And 9 more authors.

We present an updated 3-locus molecular phylogeny of tribe Ocellularieae, the second largest tribe within subfamily Graphidoideae in the Graphidaceae. Adding 165 newly generated sequences from the mitochondrial small subunit rDNA (mtSSU), the nuclear large subunit rDNA (nuLSU), and the second largest subunit of the DNA-directed RNA polymerase II (RPB2), we currently distinguish 218 species among the sequenced material, including the outgroup. This corresponds to almost half the species at this point recognized within this tribe. The newly generated sequences include 23 newly described species and one newly described genus published elsewhere in this volume. For the first time, Sarcographina cyclospora Müll. Arg., in spite of its distinctly lirellate ascomata, is shown to belong in tribe Ocellularieae, as strongly supported sister to Ocellularia inturgescens (Müll. Arg.) Mangold. The following six new combinations are proposed: Melanotrema lynceodes (Nyl.) Rivas Plata, Lücking & Lumbsch, Ocellularia curranii (Vain.) Kraichak, Lücking & Lumbsch, O. khasiana (Patw. & Nagarkar) Kraichak, Lücking & Lumbsch, O. cinerea (Müll. Arg.) Kraichak, Lücking & Lumbsch, O. erodens (R. C. Harris) Kraichak, Lücking & Lumbsch, and O. laeviuscula (Nyl) Kraichak, Lücking & Lumbsch. Further, the new name Ocellularia hernandeziana Kraichak, Lücking & Lumbsch is introduced for Myriotrema ecorticatum. The nomenclatural status of the name Ocellularia microstoma is clarified. © 2014 Magnolia Press. Source

Lucking R.,Science and Education | Johnston M.K.,Science and Education | Aptroot A.,ABL Herbarium | Kraichak E.,Science and Education | And 26 more authors.

Recent studies of the global diversity of the lichenized fungal family Graphidaceae suggest that there are a large number of species remaining to be discovered. No less than 640 species have been described since 2002, including 175 new species introduced in a collaborative global effort in a single issue in this journal. These findings suggest that the largest family of tropical crustose lichens may have an even higher number of species than Parmeliaceae. To estimate whether the discovery of 175 new species is a significant step forward in cataloguing extant diversity in this family, we employed a parametric method to predict global species richness of Graphidaceae using a GIS-based grid map approach. The model employs linear regression between observed species richness and sample score and vegetation composition per grid to predict individual grid species richness, and interpolation of species grid distributions to predict global species richness. We also applied a non-parametric species-area curve approach and non-parametric species richness estimators (Chao, Jackknife, Bootstrap) to compare the results from the different methods. Our approach resulted in a prediction of 4,330 species of Graphidaceae, including approximately 3,500 (sub-)tropical species in the core subfamilies Fissurinoideae, Graphidoideae, Redonographoideae, plus 125 species restricted to extratropical regions (outside the zone between 30° northern and 30° southern latitude) and 700 species in subfamily Gomphilloideae. Currently, nearly 2,500 species are known in the family, including species not yet formally described. Thus, our model suggests that even after describing 175 species in this issue and with another approximately 140 awaiting publication, the number of species still to be discovered and described is more than 1,800, and much work remains to be done to close this substantial gap. Based on our approach, we predict that most of this undiscovered diversity is to be found in Mexico, the northern Andean region, the eastern Amazon and central and southern Brazil, tropical West Africa, continental Southeast Asia, Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea. © 2014 Magnolia Press. Source

Papong K.,Mahsarakham University | Boonpragob K.,Ramkhamhaeng University | Parnmen S.,The Field Museum | Thorsten Lumbsch H.,The Field Museum
Nova Hedwigia

The genus Lecanora is one of the largest genera of crustose lichens and includes a number of distinct clades. Lecanora sensu stricto is characterized by oxalate crystals in the apothecial margin and the presence of atranorin and/or usnic acid. Currently, the phylogenetic relationships of tropical taxa in Lecanora s.str. are poorly understood. To address the phylogeny of tropical species and to test whether certain characters found predominantly in tropical taxa (usnic acid and dark hypothecium) have evolved several times or not we assembled a data set including two loci (ITS, mtSSU rDNA) of 35 species. Species that contain usnic acid do not form a monophyletic group, suggesting that the presence of this metabolite is of restricted taxonomic importance above the species level. Also species with a dark hypothecium do not form a monophyletic group. Monophyly of both groups was rejected using alternative topology tests. These results suggest that usnic acid and a dark hypothecium are adaptations of tropical Lecanora spp. that evolved several times independently within this clade of lichenized fungi. The placements of the aspicilioid L. subimmersa and the almost biatorine L. flavo-pallida in Lecanora s.str. are supported by our study. Three of the included species, viz. L. achroa, L. caesiorubella, and L. helva were shown to be not monophyletic. © 2012 J. Cramer in Gebr. Borntraeger Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, Germany. Source

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