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News Article | August 17, 2017
Site: www.gizmag.com

Earlier this year, India dethroned China from a long reign as the world's largest motorcycle manufacturer, having already overtaken China to become the largest domestic motorcycle market three years ago. China's domestic motorcycle market has been in decline for five years as government policy has incentivized electric bicycle sales and denied motorcycles access to city centers across China. Conversely, the relentless growth of motorcycle sales in India has now created such momentum that it is beginning to reshape the global marketplace. Indian sales are still expanding (6.9 percent in the last year) and are expected to do so for the forseeable future, thanks to a fast-growing 1.32 billion domestic population that is quickly urbanising and emerging from poverty – India has the fastest GDP growth of any major country. A massive India-wide road construction program is also fuelling car and bike sales, just as it did in America a century ago, introducing a time-honoured formula for invigorating an economy. India's domestic motorcycle marketplace is currently comprised almost entirely of sub-125cc scooters and motorcycles, but as history has witnessed with other motorcycle markets of the last century, the larger capacity "luxury" classes take an increasing share as the market matures ... and that is just beginning to happen. The blue line at the bottom of the below chart is Royal Enfield – it shows four years of near linear growth. Around 500,000 motorcycles are sold in America each year, and around 125,000 are sold in the United Kingdom. By comparison, India sold 17.59 million motorcycles in the 2016-2017 financial year – more every three days than are sold in the UK in a year, more every 11 days than are sold in the US in a year. Most of those two-wheelers are of inconsequential capacity by western norms – nine of the top ten selling models in India last year had capacities of 100cc or 125cc with aspirational names such as the Splendor, Passion and Glamour. The only motorcycle in the top 10 with a capacity greater than 124cc is the bike directly below ... the Royal Enfield 350 Classic. The Royal Enfield name was first seen in India in 1895 as the rifle of the British Army, which had colonized India. When independence came to India in 1947, the Royal Enfield was the first motorcycle available in 1949, becoming the official motorcycle of the Indian Army and Police forces, with local production following in 1955. As the only motorcycle of Indian manufacture for the next few decades, the company served as the primary supplier of motorcycles to India at a time when two-wheels offered the most cost-efficient and reliable way of covering distances in a vast land. Returning 80 mpg and with legendary reliability in adverse conditions, Royal Enfield claimed a special place in India's national psyche. Not only had it become an Indian success story (the British parent company went broke), it had along the way become entwined with India's motorcycling culture. Royal Enfield is to India as Harley-Davidson is to America. Indeed, though Harley-Davidson enthusiasts are loyal enough to tattoo their arms and chests with the company logo, they show nothing like the brand allegiance of Royal Enfield enthusiasts. Half a century later, the Royal Enfield still dominates India's big bike (250cc plus) sales with monthly sales of more than 60,000 units a month. The Royal Enfield model range is still comprised of 350cc and 500cc single cylinder motorcycles with more than a passing resemblance to the 1932 Bullet, yet four of every five bikes over 180cc sold each month in India are Royal Enfields. Throughout it all, Enfield sales have continued to grow in the domestic market, topping 700,000 motorcycles in the last 12 months. By comparison, Harley-Davidson sells 250,000 units each year globally, KTM sells 200,000, BMW sells 150,000 motorcycles, while Triumph and Ducati sell 50,000 each – all of them together just match Royal Enfield's total output. The most fascinating aspect though is the continued runaway levels of success of the brand in the Indian marketplace, where waiting periods of three months for most Royal Enfield models are commonplace across Indian dealerships. Next year the company plans to produce 900,000 motorcycles in an effort to meet demand. The dominance of Royal Enfield's retro design now appears to be shaping the entire marketplace, as heritage brands are being courted, partnered and created so that other manufacturers can compete with Royal Enfield. Royal Enfield began making motorcycles in 1901 and its status as one of the oldest motorcycle marques is the main reason that other long standing marques have all partnered with, or been acquired by an Indian motorcycle maker in the last few years: Peugeot (since 1901), Triumph (since 1902), BSA (since 1903) and Husqvarna (since 1903). Here follows the history of the new order as it has unfolded The partnership between India's Bajaj and Austria's KTM is one of the great success stories of the motorcycle industry, having begun a decade ago in 2007 when Bajaj purchased a 14 percent stake in KTM. This enabled KTM to triple its annual production numbers from 65,000 in 2007 to 200,000 in 2017, and become the largest motorcycle manufacturer in Europe along the way. Bajaj has now invested around $250 million in KTM and produces around 100,000 KTMs a year at its manufacturing facility in Chakan, near Pune. In turn, beyond KTM's core competency of building "race ready" performance motorcycles, it owns a number of highly relevant technology companies, such as renowned motorcycle suspension company WP, and aerospace manufacturer Pankl, which produces key components such as turbines and conrods for aircraft and high performance engines. The relationship provides access to an ecosystem of manufacturing competency. Bajaj's philosophy of developing long-term relationships to achieve growth has been very successful, and Bajaj is also the Kawasaki distributor in India. Last month (July 2017), Bajaj went very close to purchasing the Ducati brand name from Lamborghini (in turn, a subsidiary of Volkswagen Group), but the deal failed at the eleventh hour for unknown reasons. Within weeks, it had found an alternative new partner of similar promise: Triumph. Esteemed British motorcycle manufacturer Triumph announced it would partner with India's Bajaj last week, with the aim of delivering a "range of outstanding mid–capacity motorcycles benefiting from the collective strengths of both companies." With similar existing sales numbers to KTM at the beginning of the Bajaj relationship, plus R&D resources capable of producing state-of-the-art motorcycles for enthusiasts, Triumph and Bajaj have the makings of an ideal and very rewarding partnership. Last month, Bajaj and KTM announced they would globally roll out a full range of Husqvarna motorcycles, another well-known European motorcycle brand name with an extraordinary heritage, having begun manufacturing motorcycles in 1903. KTM acquired a long-term license agreement for the use of the Husqvarna brand from BMW in 2013 and the announced plans call for Husqvarna motorcycles to be manufactured in the same Indian plant (Chakan) as KTM, and distributed in equal numbers to KTM in the medium term. The first planned Husqvarna models, the Vitpilen 401 (pictured above), Svartpilen 401 and the Vitpilen 701 will be produced by KTM in Austria, and launched in 2018. Later in the year, production of the Vitpilen 401 and Svartpilen 401, which share the KTM 390 Duke engine, will be transferred to Bajaj's Chakan factory. KTM production in India is expected to exceed 100,000 units this year, and with Husqvarna production to be ramped up from 2018, that number of motorcycles produced from the KTM relationship is expected to double to 200,000 over the next few years. Hence, in addition to the two million Bajaj motorcycles sold in 2016, the fourth largest Indian motorcycle manufacturer has leveraged its success developing two of its own brands (KTM and Husqvarna), and nurturing a non-equity partnership with Triumph. In 2013, the third-largest Indian motorcycle manufacturer, TVS, announced a strategic partnership with Germany's BMW Motorrad to design and build sub-500cc aspirational motorcycles under the BMW brand for both the Indian domestic and global markets. In 2016, TVS sold 2.48 million motorcycles in India, but had never produced a motorcycle larger than 250cc. The new BMW G 310 R was announced in 2015, and is currently rolling out into developed countries under the BMW brand (see our first test of the bike), with production taking place at the TVS Hosur plant in Tamil Nadu. Production is still ramping up, with 4,772 units produced in 2016-2017 financial year, and 2,000 units produced last month. Sales will begin in India next year once BMW has developed a more extensive dealership network, with more new models designed by BMW Motorrad and built by TVS to follow. Mahindra & Mahindra is one of India's largest companies with annual revenues of US$13 billion. The company is India's largest producer of SUVs and utility vehicles and its subsidiaries include the world's largest tractor manufacturer. It has been working toward building a presence in the Indian motorcycle industry since 2008 with little success, though the last few years has seen an intensification of effort and expenditure that indicates that failure is not an option. The company created Mahindra Racing and began racing in the World Motorcycle Championships in 2011, at first in the 125cc class, then in the Moto3 (250cc) class. In 2016, the team was supplying several satellite teams plus an official Peugeot team with motorcycles and experienced its first success with two Grand Prix wins. Mahindra Two Wheelers, the eighth largest motorcycle manufacturer in India, acquired a controlling interest (51 percent) of Peugeot Motocycles in 2015. Peugeot claims to be the oldest motorcycle manufacturer in the world, though it's debatable whether the claim is technically accurate. Peugeot showed the motorcycle above at the 1898 Paris Exhibition, but did not actually begin manufacturing motorcycles until 1901, the same year that England's Royal Enfield and America's Indian began production. Perhaps even more relevant to Mahindra's ambitions was the purchase in 2015 of the famous Italian design house Pininfarina for $185 million. Pininfarina's long-term relationship with Ferrari as its designer of choice over the last 70 years will enhance Mahindra's ability to create premium products. In 2016, Mahindra & Mahindra acquired a controlling share in Classic Legends Private Limited (CLPL). Subsequently, in October 2016, Classic Legends acquired the rights and trademarks for the legendary British Motorcycle company BSA. Classic Legends paid just £3,399,600 (US$4,150,000) for the rights to resurrect one of the best known motorcycle brands in history, a company that was once the largest motorcycle manufacturer in the world. Detailed plans for the marque are still unclear, but design of a range of 500cc to 750cc motorcycles is known to be underway in Italy and manufacturing facilities are being built in both France and India with a view to a brand launch in 2019. Mahindra has also confirmed that it has acquired the rights to the "Gold Star" brand, which was synonymous with BSA for many decades. In the same 2016 time-frame as it acquired the rights to BSA, Mahindra subsidiary Classic Legends also acquired the Czech motorcycle manufacturer Jawa and, in a separate deal, the rights to the name Yezdi. Jawa motorcycles were sold in over 120 countries during the 1960s and 1970s, with the distinctive two-strokes enjoying a reputation for reliability that borders on legendary. If you've never heard of a Yezdi, you're probably not alone if you live outside India. Jawa motorcycles were initially distributed in india by Ideal Jawa, but eventually were rebranded as Yezdi and the acquisition of both Jawa and Yezdi names indicates greater plans are afoot. Mahindra has already confirmed that a global dealership network is planned for both Jawa and BSA. The recent inauguration of a Yezdi web site aimed at the Indian market suggests the beloved Yezdi name will be used in India.


Bansode N.V.,Mahindra Two Wheelers Ltd | Ganguly A.,Mahindra Two Wheelers Ltd | Agarwal V.K.,Mahindra Two Wheelers Ltd
SAE International Journal of Engines | Year: 2016

A single cylinder gasoline engine of a sports bike generates sufficient hot gases to pose great challenge to the designers of exhaust system. The high temperature exhaust gases in muffler creates thermal elongation on the solid parts of exhaust system, which is mounted on the chassis. This arrangement induces thermal stress in exhaust assembly. It is necessary to analyze this thermal stress to ensure the durability of muffler components. The exhaust design has a diversion at the header pipe to distribute the flow in two branches. This junction and the branches heated up excessively and showed repeated failure. To analyze the thermal stress, the temperature distribution in the muffler components is obtained from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis. The complete motorcycle with detailed exhaust system is modelled in the standard wind tunnel using a commercial CFD software. Conjugate heat transfer (CHT) study is done for normal and adverse operating conditions considering transfer of heat between hot exhaust gases passing through muffler assembly, muffler solid components and external air flowing over motorcycle. The heat generation in the catalytic convertor and the radiation between muffler components are also considered. Parallelly, complete muffler assembly is modelled in a commercially available FEA code. All the muffler mountings are considered including the bushings and bolted connections. Material properties are defined for each of the muffler components. The temperature distribution obtained from CFD analysis is applied to simulate for thermal expansion, stress and deformation in the exhaust system. Results showed excessive stress on a certain component of the muffler. Design modification is implemented and is validated following similar analysis work flow. Thermal stress is found to have reduced considerably in the modified design as compared to the base design. Copyright © 2016 SAE International.


Ganesan A.,Mahindra Two Wheelers Ltd. | Sundaram S.,Mahindra Two Wheelers Ltd.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2012

State of Charge (SOC) of a storage battery gives the capacity remaining in the battery to meet the load demands. SOC of a Lead Acid battery is predicted based on the temperature compensated value of electrolytes' specific gravity (Sp. gr.). Since measuring specific gravity is not possible in an automobile under dynamic conditions, Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) is used as the parameter to predict the SOC. But OCV can indicate SOC accurately only after a sufficient period of rest of a battery in any condition. Also it varies between batteries due to several factors like temperature, ageing, electrolyte volume, internal construction, etc. Predicting the SOC of battery theoretically depends on number of equations developed to accommodate these variables. Hence for a real time estimation of SOC of battery, a Heuristic algorithm is suggested. The initial State of Battery is estimated by temperature compensated OCV Vs SOC characteristics and followed by dynamic prediction of SOC using Coulomb or Energy Measurement. The drawback of cumulative error in energy measurement is also overcome in this algorithm. For improving the accuracy of dynamic prediction, the heuristic algorithm also talks about compensating the predicted SOC value with respect to factors such as rate of discharge, rate of charge, self discharge and temperature. Finally, the algorithm also talks about "A Self learning feature", to predict OCV based the initial SOC of Lead Acid battery more accurately irrespective of the vehicle quiescent current differences. Copyright © 2012 SAE International.


Menon M.,Mahindra Two Wheelers Ltd | Kakaye S.,Mahindra Two Wheelers Ltd | Sundaram S.,Mahindra Two Wheelers Ltd
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2016

The world today is moving more towards convenience and luxury. Auto manufacturers are being constantly challenged to provide innovative additions to conventional vehicles in terms of attractive features. This paper describes one such invention proposed to add convenience and novelty to the use of two wheelers. The proposed system is called a "Keyless Scooter". Derived from the idea of keyless entry in four wheelers, the system aims at extending this luxury to a larger band of population in India, i.e. users of two wheeled vehicles. The system eliminates use of a mechanical lock and key arrangement. All functions carried out by the mechanical arrangement of lock and key are replaced with an equivalent electronic system. A "Keyless Scooter" is one in which a user can just approach it with a key fob on himself/herself and start the vehicle, open the luggage box, etc. without having to insert a key physically into the lock body. The vehicle is designed to communicate with the key fob wirelessly thus retaining the core requirement of a lock and key arrangement-Exclusivity. This paper describes the "Keyless Scooter" in detail, covering design considerations, vehicle interfacing and choice and arrangement of electromechanical sub-systems. Further, it goes on to explain the algorithm employed to intelligently maintain convenience without compromising on safety and security. To conclude, this document describes the prototype built on a scooter platform and also describes the failure modes associated with this design, corresponding counteractions taken for the same and future scope. © Copyright 2016 SAE International.


Pradeepak R.,Automotive CAE | Kumbhar S.,Mahindra Two Wheelers Ltd.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2016

At present, vehicle testing in laboratory is one of the important phase to quicken the product validation process. In the early phase of laboratory testing it is required to evaluate the strength of the vehicle structure through physical rig setup which represents the consumer's usage. Two and Multiple poster input excitation are among the laboratory rig testing to represent the actual road are used to predict the durability of vehicle components. The road inputs through the poster are known as drive files, a feedback controlled system which reproduces the track or real road recorded specimen's accelerations, displacements and strains in laboratory. Derivation of drive files in poster testing requires iteration of physical specimen to exactly replicate the actual road. This paper discusses about generation of drive files as inputs for poster actuation with virtual model(as a substitute for actual model)which is applicable in areas of vehicle durability and ride comfort studies. For the reason to minimize the time,cost,man-machine hours and energy, an automation is developed to simulate the validated virtual model with iterations process to generate the road files for further use in physical and virtual test.The paper details on the procedure followed traditionally and what changes have been made in the current process to generate road drive input files. © Copyright 2016 SAE International.


Khan S.A.,Mahindra Two Wheelers Ltd | Dhongde S.,Mahindra Two Wheelers Ltd
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2014

A small single cylinder 4 stroke gasoline engine varying capacity from 100cc to 500cc generally used for two wheelers has a wide range of load conditions. Such variation in load on engine demands variation in Transmission ratio at different vehicle speeds for optimum performance, drivability and Economy. A scooter has continuously variable transmission called as CVT which is generally centrifugally controlled with respect to engine speed as against that of series of manual gears used in motor cycle. The work aims at creating a mathematical model for controlling variation in transmission ratio of CVT by converting the generally centrifugally controlled CVT by electronic control. The objective is to implement the mathematical model with a novel electronic controlled CVT in a two wheeler engine for the improvement in performance. The mathematical model done through geometric calculations and modeling is discussed in details. The mathematical model is compared with the actual testing data to validate the calculations and results. Thus with this mathematical model and mechanism we can achieve a variation in engine transmission ratio as per load demand. The work explains the impact of mathematical model for controlling CVT ratio installed on the two wheeler engine and hence will resultant improvement in performance in terms of drivability and economy of a vehicle. On the whole it concludes that this mathematical model can be implemented on small engines for better performance. Copyright © 2014 SAE International.


Khan S.A.,Mahindra Two Wheelers Ltd. | Ayyappath P.,Mahindra Two Wheelers Ltd.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2014

A small single cylinder 4 stroke gasoline engine varying capacity from 100cc to 1000cc generally used for two wheelers has a wide range of engine speeds during operation and may vary from 1000 RPM to 10000 RPM. Such variation in speed of engine demands variation in the valve timing and lift of engine at different speeds for optimum performance. The work aims at improving the performance of single cylinder two wheeler gasoline engine. The objective is to implement the novel variable valve timing and lift mechanism in the two wheeler single cylinder 4 stroke gasoline engine for the improvement in performance. The system design through kinematic calculations and 3D modeling, the prototyping with assembly, the functioning of system and its effect on the performance of engine are discussed in details. Valve timing and lift optimization was done using 1D simulation for performance prediction. The system includes a spring operated switching mechanism by which we achieve variation in valve timing and lift of intake valve at different speed range. The system is made compact to accommodate in the extremely small space of a single cylinder 110cc 4 stroke SOHC engine generally used in scooters and motorcycles. An electronic control circuit and DC motor is used to sense speed and actuate the mechanism respectively. Thus with this mechanism we achieve a variation in engine valve timing and lift at different speed range of the engine in stages. The mechanism was assembled and tested on engine dynamometer for studying operation of the mechanism on the engine at various speeds. The work explains the impact of system prototype when installed on the two wheeler engine and resulting improvement in Volumetric Efficiency and Torque of Engine, hence a reduction in fuel consumption. On the whole it concludes that this system can be implemented on small engines for better performance. Copyright © 2014 SAE International.


J A.P.,Mahindra Two Wheelers Ltd. | Agarwal V.K.,Mahindra Two Wheelers Ltd.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2014

Piston is a very important part of the engine as the contribution to its efficiency and performance is huge. This study is to understand in detail, the effect of piston skirt design on the functioning of an engine. A small gasoline engine was taken up for study. A commercially available numerical code PISDYN was used to analyze the piston liner interface. The Finite Element (FE) models of piston and the liner were used to simulate Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication (EHL) between skirt / liner and piston pin / pin hole. Friction of the numerical model was validated through a tear-down motoring of the engine. The secondary motion of the piston is studied. Understanding of how the profile and the ovality of the piston skirt affects the friction, wear and impact force at the piston liner interface is gathered. Asymmetrical skirt profile is proposed and its utility to reduce the thrust force on the liner and hence its friction and vibration of the engine is explained. The importance of piston-liner cold clearance, viscosity and liner surface roughness on skirt lubrication, friction and wear is understood. Also how piston pin offset and piston mass affects the thrust forces is seen. Based on the above understandings, conditions which would aid engine seizure and how it can be avoided are explained. Copyright © 2014 SAE International and Copyright © 2014 TSAE.


Mohite U.,Mahindra Two Wheelers Ltd. | Bhavsar P.,Mahindra Two Wheelers Ltd.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2014

In this paper the approach to predict vibrations in motorcycles is presented. It can be divided mainly in two parts: prediction of engine forces using multi body dynamics (MBD) simulation and prediction of vibration response using FEA. Dynamic forces predicted at each engine mount through MBD simulation are used as input to FE analysis for vibration prediction. Single cylinder SI engine having primary balancer shaft is considered to develop this methodology. Flexibilities of important parts are considered for MBD simulation. Crankshaft ball bearing which is used in almost all two wheeler engine is modeled with 6×6 stiffness matrix. It provides coupling between radial, axial and tilting deflections of bearing and it also allows moment transfer from crankshaft to casing. This helps to predict realistic forces at each bearing and engine mounts. Distribution of primary and secondary forces at crank bearings and at different engine mounts is studied. Forces predicted from MBD simulation at each engine mounts are applied to full vehicle FE model. Forced response is predicted at each TSP and compared with test response at same point. It was found that predicted response was in well agreement with test response. Based on understanding of distribution of forces it is decided to increase mount stiffness of the support experiencing more force. This in turn helped to reduce vibration at TSP. This approach is effective to predict vibrations in early design stage to reduce development cost and time. Copyright © 2014 SAE International and Copyright © 2014 TSAE.


Jain A.,Mahindra Two Wheelers Ltd.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2015

Conventional motorcycle swingarm design includes steel tubing and sheet metal structures. Conventional swingarm are inherently over-designed as their design comprises of tubular structures of same cross section through the entire length of the swingarm, whereas the stress induced varies along the length (maximum near the frame pivot). An aluminum alloy swingarm design even when subjected to casting manufacturing constraints, has the potential for better material layout and weight minimization. But obtaining an ideal material layout for maximum performance can be a challenge as it requires a number of time consuming design iteration cycles. This paper aims to use concept based design methodology for design of aluminum alloy swing arm by application of topology optimization techniques to meet styling and structural targets and thus, obtain an end user product. This paper demonstrates the use of a concept based design approach in contrast to the conventional experience based approach. The concept based designing can be deemed to be more profitable and as it greatly reduces design iteration cycle time. Copyright © 2015 SAE International.

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