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Mathur N.,iversity | Singh J.,iversity | Bohra S.,iversity | Bohra A.,Mahila P. G. Mahavidhyalaya | Vyas A.,iversity
International Journal of Phytoremediation | Year: 2010

An experiment was conducted to study the potential of chromium (Cr) phytoaccumulatory capabilities of four tree species viz., Anogeissus latifolia, Terminalia arjuna, Tecomella undulata, and Salvadora persica. Possibility of enhancement of Cr uptake by citric acid and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (VAM) amendments were also tried. Cr is a major pollutant of the environment. Chromium can exist in oxidation states from III to VI, but the most stable and common forms of Cr are trivalent and hexavalent species. Cr(VI) was more toxic to the tree growth in terms of collar diameter (CD) increment in all the tree species than Cr(III). Roots accumulated more Cr than shoots in all the tree species. There was more than 10 fold increase in root Cr content in comparison with shoot Cr content in all the trees at all the concentration of Cr and all sources of Cr. Citric acid significantly increased the Cr content in the tissues of roots in all the species under both speciation of Cr. The highest increase in Cr content brought by 20 mM citric acid addition was in A. latifolia. Results suggest that Anogeissus latifolia is a potential Cr accumulator with citric acid as soil amendment. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Mathur N.,Mahila P. G. Mahavidhyalaya | Singh J.,University of Rajasthan | Bohra S.,University of Rajasthan | Bohra A.,Mahila P. G. Mahavidhyalaya | And 3 more authors.
Advances in Environmental Biology | Year: 2010

The industrial revolution of the past century has resulted in significant damage to environmental resources such as air, water and soil. Phytoremediation is a promising technology for the cleanup of petroleum contaminated soil. This subject is emerging as a cutting edge area of research gaining commercial significance in the contemporary field of environmental biotechnology. Several microbes, including mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal fungi, agricultural and vegetable crops, ornamentals, and wild metal hyperaccumulating plants are being tested both in lab and field conditions for decontaminating the metalliferous substrates in the environment. As on todate about 400 plants that hyperaccumulate metals are reported. In the present work the rhizosphere of Terminalia arjuna (L.) Druce, Anogeissus latifolia (L.) Willd. and Tecomella undulata (L.) Willd. Ex. Del. plants were tested for their abilities to stimulate the microbial degradation of soil pollutants in desert soil contaminated with 2.5-2.6% crude petroleum oil. The results showed that the roots of the three different plants were density associated with total bacteria, fungi and oil-degrading microorganisms, this is confirmed from the (R+/S+) ratios which ranged from 55.2-250.8 (for total bacteria), 20-131.3 (for fungi) and 95.7-296.1 (for oil degraders). Percentages of oil-degraders were higher in the rhizosphere soil of T. arjuna (65.5%) as compared to the rhizosphere soil of A. latifolia and T. undulata plants (22.5 % and 20.2 % respectively). The results of the biodegradation of oil and its fractions showed that great reduction (26 %) of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) was observed in the rhizosphere soil of T. arjuna as compared to 15.6% and 12.8% reduction in rhizosphere soil of A. latifolia and T. undulata respectively. It was observed also that in the polluted non-cultivated soil the TPHs were reduced by 8.2 - 10.5 % as a result of biostimulation process only (addition of nutrients).The results also showed that T. arjuna rhizosphere was able to reduce more of the saturated (43.0 %) and more of the aromatics (25.7 %) fractions, compared to (35.2 % and 7.9 %) for A. latifolia and (31.2 % and 4.1 %) for T. undulata rhizospheres. It is of interest to find that 5.3 % of the hardly degradable fraction resins were degraded in rhizosphere soil of T. arjuna. The present results clearly demonstrated that T. arjuna provided successful phytoremediation process of a contaminated desert soil as compared to the other two trees. © 2010, American-Eurasian Network for Scientific Information. Source

Mathur N.,Mahila P. G. Mahavidhyalaya | Singh J.,iversity | Bohra S.,iversity | Bohra A.,Mahila P. G. Mahavidhyalaya | Vyas A.,iversity
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section B: Soil and Plant Science | Year: 2010

The study was conducted to determine if pre-inoculation of transplants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alleviates salt effects on growth and yield of Parwal (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) when irrigated with saline water. Seeds of T. dioica were sown in polystyrene trays and treated with AM fungi (AM) or without (non-AM) Glomus deserticola. Once the seedlings had reached appropriate size, they were transplanted into nonsterile soil in concrete blocks under greenhouse conditions. The soil electrical conductivity (ECe) was 1.6 dS m-1. Plants were irrigated with nonsaline water (ECw-0.6 dS m-1) or saline water (ECw-2.6 dS m-1) until harvest. These treatments resulted in soil EC at harvest of 1.9 and 4.6 dS m-1 for nonsaline and saline water treatments, respectively. Root colonization with AM fungi at flowering was lower under saline than under nonsaline conditions. Pre-inoculated T. dioica plants with AM fungi irrigated with both saline and nonsaline water had greater shoot and root dry matter yield and fresh fruit yield than did non-AM plants. The enhancement in fresh fruit yield due to AM fungi inoculation was 25% under nonsaline and 48% under saline water conditions. Shoot contents of P, K, Zn, Cu, and Fe were higher in AM compared with non-AM plants grown under nonsaline and saline water conditions. Shoot Na concentrations were lower in AM than in non-AM plants grown under saline water conditions. Results indicate that pre-inoculation of T. dioica transplants with AM fungi improved yield and can help alleviate deleterious effects of salt stress on crop yield. © 2010 Taylor & Francis. Source

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