Bangkok, Thailand
Bangkok, Thailand

Mahidol University is a public research university in Bangkok, Thailand. Established in 1888 as School of Medical Practitioners, Siriraj Hospital and reorganized in 1943 as University of Medical science . The university originally focused on Health science but also expanded to other fields in recent decades. MU hosted the first medical school of Thailand, the Siriraj Medical School, from which the university traced its origin. Today, MU offers a wide range of graduate and undergraduate programs from natural science to liberal arts with remote campuses in Kanchanaburi, Nakhon Sawan, and Amnat Charoen provinces. In terms of fiscal budget and portion of budget spent on research programs, MU receives the highest budget of any public university; about $147 million each year, most of which is granted for graduate research programs. Mahidol University has been ranked Thailand's No. 1 university in 2011 by QS Asian University Rankings. Wikipedia.

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News Article | April 24, 2017

Researchers at Penn State have received more than $1 million in first-year funding from the National Institutes of Health to investigate malaria transmission in Southeast Asia with a goal of working toward the disease's elimination in the region. They will receive up to approximately $9 million over seven years for this project. "In 2014, the most recent year for which data are available, about 438,000 people died from malaria worldwide," said Liwang Cui, professor of entomology, Penn State, and the project's principal investigator. "And that's just a tiny fraction of the people who were diagnosed with malaria that year -- 214 million people contracted the disease." Cui noted that Southeast Asia accounts for 7 percent of global malaria deaths, and the majority of these cases occur along the borders of these countries. Recently, he added, the six Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) countries -- Cambodia, China's Yunnan Province, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam -- have committed to eliminating malaria by 2030 in all countries of the GMS. Among the many projects they will pursue with their grant, Cui and his colleagues -- which includes Jetsumon Sattabongkot, faculty of science, Mahidol University, Thailand -- will continue to use molecular diagnostic tools to conduct malaria surveillance and to identify transmission hotspots and risk factors for malaria infection, as well as evaluate the effectiveness of current treatment regimens, along the borders of three countries within the GMS -- China, Myanmar and Thailand. The researchers will also examine how environmental changes affect disease transmission, and whether changes in mosquito biting behaviors -- for example, outdoor/indoor biting -- have a genetic basis. In addition, they will use genetic techniques to examine resistance to several commonly-used insecticides among the major vector mosquitoes, and they will track the spread of resistance to other sites. "Our previous work has found that the mortality rates of the Anopheles sinensis mosquitoes from both central and southwestern China were all below 90 percent for the five insecticides tested -- deltamethrin, permethrin, DDT, malathion and bendiocarb -- suggesting that they [the mosquitos] were all resistant to pyrethroids, organophosphates, carbamates and organochlorines," said Cui. According to Cui, fake drugs to treat malaria are often sold in the border regions of Southeast Asia. As part of their project, he and his colleagues will investigate the extent of this problem using a special diagnostic tool they developed. "Many migrants, due to illegal immigration status, often actively avoid contact with the authorities and seek malaria treatment at private sectors and small drug vendors," he said. "As a result, border areas represent the biggest market for counterfeit and substandard antimalarial drugs." The team already has made many advances in these areas and the new funding from the NIH's National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases will enable them to continue this work. "We will use innovative molecular and genomic technologies to reveal the underlying mechanisms needed to design integrated, targeted control measures that attack the roots of the malaria problem," said Cui. "By strategically selecting three countries in this region with drastically different malaria epidemiologies, we expect that the findings of these studies will benefit the entire malaria community." Other researchers of this consortium include Jason Rasgon and Renze Li at Penn State; Daibin Zhong at the University of California, Irvine; Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Jaranit Kaewkungwal, Saranath Lawpoolsri at Mahidol University; Myat Phone Kyaw, Myo Min, Than Naing Soe at Myanmar Medical Association; Yaming Cao at China Medical University; Baomin Wang at China Agricultural University; and Zhaoqing Yang Kunming Medical University.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH.2013.3.1-1 | Award Amount: 3.17M | Year: 2014

The phenomena surrounding temporary transnational mobility of people are giving rise to an increasing political and academic debate throughout the world. This multidisciplinary EURA-NET project produces scientifically sound and innovative framings for investigating transformative characteristics and development impacts of temporary transnational migration and mobility in highly industrialised societies, transformation countries (emerging economies, transition countries, e.g.) and developing countries. Theoretical and empirical studies will be accomplished to attain an understanding of the transformative characteristics of temporary and circular migration, e.g. the mobility of seasonal workers, students, tourists and corporate workers in China, Finland, Germany, Hungary, India, the Netherlands, the Philippines, Thailand, Turkey and Ukraine, as well as in wider international and regional contexts. Research data will be gathered through interviews with individual migrants (and non-migrants) and national and international policy-makers. The findings in the European-Asian context will provide insights to be applied to other world regions. The final aim is to promote migration governance in a development perspective at all levels, from national to international. An associated set of questions concerns what challenges temporary transnational mobility poses to policy-making on European, national, international and global scales. By uncovering how politics structure peoples border-crossing movements in migrant-sending, migrant-receiving and transit countries and by shedding light on the international practices and lived experiences of individual migrants, the project will help European policy-makers to address challenges arising in the increasingly interconnected and demographically mobile world. The research outcomes will be communicated in the forms of policy briefs and scientific and policy reports to multi-level interest groups in European governance.

The Government Of The United States and Mahidol University | Date: 2016-09-06

Chimeric flaviviruses that are avirulent and immunogenic are provided. The chimeric viruses are constructed to contain amino acid mutations in the nonstructural viral proteins of a flavivirus. Chimeric viruses containing the attenuation-mutated nonstructural genes of the virus are used as a backbone into which the structural genes of a second flavivirus strain are inserted. These chimeric viruses elicit pronounced immunogenicity yet lack the accompanying clinical symptoms of viral disease. The attenuated chimeric viruses are effective as immunogens or vaccines and may be combined in a pharmaceutical composition to confer simultaneous immunity against several strains of pathogenic flaviviruses.

The Government Of The United States Of America and Mahidol University | Date: 2016-03-30

Chimeric flaviviruses that are avirulent and immunogenic are provided. The chimeric viruses are constructed to contain amino acid mutations in the nonstructural proteins of a flavivirus. Chimeric viruses containing the attenuation-mutated nonstructural genes of the virus are used as a backbone into which the structural protein genes of a second flavivirus strain are inserted. These chimeric viruses elicit pronounced immunogenicity yet lack the accompanying clinical symptoms of viral disease. The attenuated chimeric viruses are effective as immunogens or vaccines and may be combined in a pharmaceutical composition to confer simultaneous immunity against several strains of pathogenic flaviviruses.

Lohsiriwat V.,Mahidol University
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2012

This review discusses the pathophysiology, epidemiology, risk factors, classification, clinical evaluation, and current non-operative and operative treatment of hemorrhoids. Hemorrhoids are defined as the symptomatic enlargement and distal displacement of the normal anal cushions. The most common symptom of hemorrhoids is rectal bleeding associated with bowel movement. The abnormal dilatation and distortion of the vascular channel, together with destructive changes in the supporting connective tissue within the anal cushion, is a paramount finding of hemorrhoids. It appears that the dysregulation of the vascular tone and vascular hyperplasia might play an important role in hemorrhoidal development, and could be a potential target for medical treatment. In most instances, hemorrhoids are treated conservatively, using many methods such as lifestyle modification, fiber supplement, suppositorydelivered anti-inflammatory drugs, and administration of venotonic drugs. Non-operative approaches include sclerotherapy and, preferably, rubber band ligation. An operation is indicated when non-operative approaches have failed or complications have occurred. Several surgical approaches for treating hemorrhoids have been introduced including hemorrhoidectomy and stapled hemorrhoidopexy, but postoperative pain is invariable. Some of the surgical treatments potentially cause appreciable morbidity such as anal stricture and incontinence. The applications and outcomes of each treatment are thoroughly discussed. © 2012 Baishideng. All rights reserved.

White N.J.,Mahidol University
The Lancet infectious diseases | Year: 2013

Falciparum malaria is transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes that have fed on blood containing gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum. In areas of low malaria transmission, where symptomatic infections contribute substantially to malaria transmission, the use of gametocytocidal drugs reduces the incidence of malaria. Artemisinin-based combination therapies provide high cure rates and substantially reduce gametocyte carriage. Artemisinin resistance in P falciparum lessens overall gametocytocidal activity, which provides a selective pressure to the spread of these resistant parasites. The 8-aminoquinoline compounds possess unique gametocytocidal properties and rapidly sterilise the mature transmissible stages of P falciparum. The addition of one dose of primaquine to artemisinin-based combination regimens could help to counter the spread of artemisinin resistance. Although primaquine is commonly recommended for falciparum and vivax malaria, concerns about drug-related haemolysis frequently prevent its administration. The limited available evidence on transmission-blocking effects of primaquine and its forerunner plasmoquine suggests that doses lower than currently recommended (0.50-0.75 mg base per kg), which would be safer, might still be very effective. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

White N.J.,Mahidol University
Malaria Journal | Year: 2011

Plasmodium vivax is a major cause of febrile illness in endemic areas of Asia, Central and South America, and the horn of Africa. Plasmodium vivax infections are characterized by relapses of malaria arising from persistent liver stages of the parasite (hypnozoites) which can be prevented only by 8-aminoquinoline anti-malarials. Tropical P. vivax relapses at three week intervals if rapidly eliminated anti-malarials are given for treatment, whereas in temperate regions and parts of the sub-tropics P. vivax infections are characterized either by a long incubation or a long-latency period between illness and relapse - in both cases approximating 8-10 months. The epidemiology of the different relapse phenotypes has not been defined adequately despite obvious relevance to malaria control and elimination. The number of sporozoites inoculated by the anopheline mosquito is an important determinant of both the timing and the number of relapses. The intervals between relapses display a remarkable periodicity which has not been explained. Evidence is presented that the proportion of patients who have successive relapses is relatively constant and that the factor which activates hypnozoites and leads to regular interval relapse in vivax malaria is the systemic febrile illness itself. It is proposed that in endemic areas a large proportion of the population harbours latent hypnozoites which can be activated by a systemic illness such as vivax or falciparum malaria. This explains the high rates of vivax following falciparum malaria, the high proportion of heterologous genotypes in relapses, the higher rates of relapse in people living in endemic areas compared with artificial infection studies, and, by facilitating recombination between different genotypes, contributes to P. vivax genetic diversity particularly in low transmission settings. Long-latency P. vivax phenotypes may be more widespread and more prevalent than currently thought. These observations have important implications for the assessment of radical treatment efficacy and for malaria control and elimination. © 2011 White; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Jitrapakdee S.,Mahidol University
International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology | Year: 2012

Hepatic gluconeogenesis is a major pathway that maintains normal plasma glucose levels during prolonged starvation. The aim of this review is to provide insights into the integration of transcriptional regulation of gluconeogenic enzyme genes in response to nutritional and hormonal changes. The roles of transcription factors/co-regulators in response to those factors will be discussed. Overall, glucagon and glucocorticoids are positive regulators of gluconeogenesis. Glucagon, via cAMP, promotes the interaction of cAMP-responsive binding protein with CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 2 which facilitates its binding to cAMP-responsive elements (CREs). The response to glucocorticoids is mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor that binds to glucocorticoid responsive elements (GREs) in the promoters of gluconeogenic genes. These CREs and GREs may be arranged as distinct elements or combined to form a "unit" to ensure the maximal transcriptional response to these hormones. The hepatocyte nuclear factors, forkhead O box, and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α can also synergistically increase transcription of gluconeogenic genes. Surtuin 1, an energy sensor can also modify the transcriptional activity of some of these transcription factors. In contrast, insulin secreted during fed conditions acts to repress transcription of gluconeogenic enzymes. This is achieved via activation of Akt/PKB and the consequent disruption of interactions between certain transcription factors/coactivators and their positive response elements in the promoters of those genes. Hypothalamic signaling via the insulin/leptin axis also regulates hepatic gluconeogenesis. Mice lacking the above transcription factors/coactivators show impaired gluconeogenesis, indicating their essential roles in the control of this vital metabolic process. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Siripunvaraporn W.,Mahidol University
Surveys in Geophysics | Year: 2012

In the last few decades, the demand for three-dimensional (3-D) inversions for magnetotelluric data has significantly driven the progress of 3-D codes. There are currently a lot of new 3-D inversion and forward modeling codes. Some, such as the WSINV3DMT code of the author, are available to the academic community. The goal of this paper is to summarize all the important issues involving 3-D inversions. It aims to show how inversion works and how to use it properly. In this paper, I start by describing several good reasons for doing 3-D inversion instead of 2-D inversion. The main algorithms for 3-D inversion are reviewed along with some comparisons of their advantages and disadvantages. These algorithms are the classical Occam's inversion, the data space Occam's inversion, the Gauss-Newton method, the Gauss-Newton with the conjugate gradient method, the non-linear conjugate gradient method, and the quasi-Newton method. Other variants are based on these main algorithms. Forward modeling, sensitivity calculations, model covariance and its parallel implementation are all necessary components of inversions and are reviewed here. Rules of thumb for performing 3-D inversion are proposed for the benefit of the 3-D inversion novice. Problems regarding 3-D inversions are discussed along with suggested topics for future research for the developers of the next decades. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Fucharoen S.,Mahidol University
Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine | Year: 2012

Hemoglobin E (HbE) is an extremely common structural hemoglobin variant that occurs at high frequencies throughout many Asian countries. It is a β-hemoglobin variant, which is produced at a slightly reduced rate and hence has the phenotype of a mild form of β thalassemia. Its interactions with different forms of α thalassemia result in a wide variety of clinical disorders, whereas its coinheritance with β thalassemia, a condition called hemoglobin E β thalassemia, is by far the most common severe form of β thalassemia in Asia and, globally, comprises approximately 50% of the clinically severe β-thalassemia disorders.

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