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Kishishita N.,Thailand Japan Research Collaboration Center on Emerging and Reemerging Infections | Kishishita N.,Osaka University | Kishishita N.,Japan National Institute of Biomedical Innovation | Sasayama M.,Osaka University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2015

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection typically causes fever, rash, myalgia, and arthralgia and sometimes results in recurrent joint pain or, in severe cases, neurological disorders or death. How CHIKV infection leads to prolonged or severe symptoms is still not well understood. In this study, we examined the neutralization (NT) titer of 98 serum samples collected from patients during the 2008-2009 chikungunya outbreak in Thailand. While all serum samples showed neutralizing activity, virus was detected in 58% of the serum samples. When we analyzed a possible association between virus and antibody titers and the presence of typical symptoms of CHIKV infection, fever and joint pain, there was no significant association except that the number of patients with fever was over three times more than the number of those without fever when CHIKV was detectable in serum. This study indicates that although neutralizing antibody is critical to eliminate CHIKV, it appears not to be the main factor associated with clinical symptoms in some cases, so that other aspects of immune responses, such as those involving proinflammatory mediators and adaptive immune cells, should be considered altogether. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Sasayama M.,Kobe University | Sasayama M.,Mahidol Osaka Center for Infectious Diseases | Shoji I.,Kobe University | Adianti M.,Kobe University | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Medical Virology | Year: 2012

The molecular basis of antibody neutralization against hepatitis C virus (HCV) is poorly understood. The E2 glycoprotein of HCV is critically involved in viral infectivity through specific binding to the principal virus receptor component CD81, and is targeted by anti-HCV neutralizing antibodies. A previous study showed that a mutation at position 534 (N534H) within the sixth N-glycosylation motif of E2 of the J6/JFH1 strain of HCV genotype 2a (HCV-2a) was responsible for more efficient access of E2 to CD81 so that the mutant virus could infect the target cells more efficiently. The purpose of this study was to analyze the sensitivity of the parental J6/JFH1, its cell culture-adapted variant P-47 possessing 10 amino acid mutations and recombinant viruses with the adaptive mutations to neutralization by anti-HCV antibodies in sera of HCV-infected patients. The J6/JFH1 virus was neutralized by antibodies in sera of patients infected with HCV-2a and -1b, with mean 50% neutralization titers being 1:670 and 1:200, respectively (P<0.00001). On the other hand, the P-47 variant showed 50- to 200-times higher sensitivity to antibody neutralization than the parental J6/JFH1 without genotype specificity. The N534H mutation, and another one at position 416 (T416A) near the first N-glycosylation motif to a lesser extent, were shown to be responsible for the enhanced sensitivity to antibody neutralization. The present results suggest that the residues 534, and 416 to a lesser extent, of the E2 glycoprotein are critically involved in the HCV infectivity and antibody neutralization. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Pipattanaboon C.,Mahidol University | Pipattanaboon C.,Sustainable Development Technology | Sasaki T.,Osaka University | Sasaki T.,Sustainable Development Technology | And 22 more authors.
Biologics: Targets and Therapy | Year: 2013

Background: Hybridomas that produce human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs) against Dengue virus (DV) had been prepared previously using peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with DV during the acute and convalescent phases of a secondary infection. Anti-DV envelope glycoprotein (E) 99 clones, anti-DV premembrane protein (prM) 8 clones, and antiDV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) 4 clones were derived from four acute-phase patients, and anti-DV E 2 clones, anti-DV prM 2 clones, and anti-DV NS1 8 clones were derived from five convalescent-phase patients. Methods and results: In the present study, we examined whether these clones cross-reacted with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), which belongs to the same virus family. Forty-six of the above-described 99 (46/99) anti-E, 0/8 anti-prM, and 2/4 anti-NS1 HuMAbs from acutephase, and 0/2 anti-E, 0/2 anti-prM, and 5/8 anti-NS1 HuMAbs from convalescent-phase showed neutralizing activity against JEV. Thus, most of the anti-E and anti-NS1 (but not the anti-prM) antibodies cross-reacted with JEV and neutralized this virus. Interestingly, 3/46 anti-E HuMAbs derived from acute-phase patients and 3/5 anti-NS1 HuMAbs from convalescent-phase patients showed particularly high neutralizing activity against JEV. Consequently, the HuMAbs showing neutralization against JEV mostly consisted of two populations: one was HuMAbs recognizing DV E and showing neutralization activity against all four DV serotypes (complex-type) and the other was HuMAbs recognizing DV NS1 and showing subcomplex-type cross-reaction with DV. Conclusion: Anti-DV E from acute phase (46/99) and anti-DV NS1 (7/12) indicate neutralizing activity against JEV. In particular, three of 46 anti-DV E clones from acute phase and three of five anti-NS1 clones from convalescent phase showed strong neutralizing activity against JEV. © 2013 Pipattanaboon et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

Puiprom O.,Mahidol Osaka Center for Infectious Diseases | Puiprom O.,Mahidol University | Yamashita A.,Osaka University | Yamashita A.,Tohoku University | And 18 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2011

Generally, RNA viruses exhibit significant genetic diversity that sometimes effect viral fitness in infected hosts and probably also pathogenesis. Dengue viruses (DENVs) consist of four antigenically distinct serotypes. All the serotypes of DENV can cause mild to severe dengue illnesses. In this study, we examined the sequence variation of DENV in plasma obtained from four patients living in Bangkok who had been secondarily infected with serotype 2 (DENV-2) in 2010. The plasma-derived RNA was directly subjected to reverse transcriptase (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at a region including most of domain III of the envelope (E) protein gene, and the PCR products obtained were subjected to clonal sequencing. Using 19-20 clones sequenced from each patient (78 total) plus 601 corresponding sequences from a public database, phylogenetic analysis revealed that the nucleic acid sequences fell into two clusters with clearly different origins. Interestingly, all patients gave sequences indicating that they carried viral populations containing 2, 3 or 5 genetic variants that consisted of one major variant plus one or more minor variants. Three patients showed a major variant from one cluster plus one or more minor components from the other while one showed major and minor variants from a single cluster. Thus, it can be concluded that DENV belonging to two different genetic lineages were co-circulated in Bangkok in 2010. For these two genotype clusters there was also a clear difference in H or Y at the deduced amino acid position 346 (i.e. H346Y) that was consistent for our sequences and 601 sequences from the public database. Thus, one among the mixed viral genotypes introduced into human individuals seems to be variably selected as the predominant component of the carried viral population, and it is possible that the dynamics of this process could influence virus evolution and disease severity. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Sasayama M.,Mahidol Osaka Center for Infectious Diseases | Sasayama M.,Osaka University | Benjathummarak S.,Mahidol University | Kawashita N.,Osaka University | And 15 more authors.
Virus Genes | Year: 2014

Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) is an acute febrile illness caused by a mosquito-borne alphavirus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV). This disease re-emerged in Kenya in 2004, and spread to the countries in and around the Indian Ocean. The re-emerging epidemics rapidly spread to regions like India and Southeast Asia, and it was subsequently identified in Europe in 2007, probably as a result of importation of chikungunya cases. On the one hand, chikungunya is one of the neglected diseases and has only attracted strong attention during large outbreaks. In 2008–2009, there was a major outbreak of chikungunya fever in Thailand, resulting in the highest number of infections in any country in the region. However, no update of CHIKV circulating in Thailand has been published since 2009. In this study, we examined the viral growth kinetics and sequences of the structural genes derived from CHIKV clinical isolates obtained from the serum specimens of CHIKF-suspected patients in Central Thailand in 2010. We identified the CHIKV harboring two mutations E1-A226V and E2-I211T, indicating that the East, Central, and South African lineage of CHIKV was continuously circulating as an indigenous population in Thailand. © 2014, The Author(s).

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