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Vellappally S.,King Saud University | Gardens S.J.,Mahe Institute of Dental science | Al Kheraif A.-A.A.,King Saud University | Babu S.,Navodaya Dental College and Hospital | And 3 more authors.
BMC Oral Health | Year: 2014

Background: To assess the prevalence of malocclusion among 12-18-year-old disabled adolescents in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, by using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and to determine the association of malocclusion with dental caries.Methods: This cross-sectional study included 243 children with various mental disabilities with or without physical infirmities. The Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and the dentition status were recorded using the World Health Organization Oral Health Surveys - Basic Methods (1997) Pro-forma. The Decayed (D), Missing (M) and Filled (F) components of the DMF index were calculated using the Dentition Status and Treatment Need (DSTN). A Chi-square test, ANOVA, and t-test were used to derive inferential statistics.Results: The mean DAI score ± standard deviation was 39.0 ± 12.3. A total of 123 (50.6%) participants (74 males and 49 females) had DAI scores of 36 and above, which indicated a handicapping malocclusion requiring mandatory orthodontic treatment. Sixty-nine (28.4%) adolescents (36 males and 33 females) had DAI scores between 31 and 35, which indicated severe malocclusion, for which orthodontic intervention was desirable. Incisal segment crowding (84.8%) was the most common aspect of the malocclusion. The mean DMFT score was 4.36 ± 3.81, and 82.8% of the participants had a DMFT score > 0. There was no statistically significant correlation between the mean DAI and DMFT scores (r = 0.090, p = 0.15). Only 16 (6.6%) of the adolescents had minor or no anomaly not needing orthodontic treatment.Conclusions: The prevalence of malocclusion and dental caries was found to be high. However, there was no positive correlation between the severity of malocclusion and dental caries among the surveyed disabled adolescents. © 2014 Vellappally et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Gopakumar M.,NITTE University | Gopakumar R.,Mahe Institute of Dental science
Medico-Legal Update | Year: 2013

Forensic odontology occupies a primary niche in the total spectrum of methods applied to medico legal identification that cannot be underrated. While extensive work has led to the rapid development of the subject of forensic odontology in Western countries, there is a need for heightening the awareness about the importance of this specialty amongst Indian dental professionals. The enamel and dentin of human teeth act like an armor coating to protect the DNA rich inner aspect of the tooth, that is, the pulp tissue from various environmental conditions.

Kallapur B.,Al Jabal Al Gharbi University | Ramalingam K.,Surendera Dental College and Research Institute | Bastian,Mahe Institute of Dental science | Mujib A.,Bapuji Dental College and Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine | Year: 2013

Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the difference in sodium, potassium, total protein in whole saliva in diabetic smokers, diabetic nonsmokers and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Nonstimulated saliva samples were collected from a group of diabetic smokers, diabetic nonsmokers, and controls. Supernatant after centrifugation was used to determine the levels of sodium, potassium, and total protein by using semiautomatic analyzer. Results: There exists a statistical difference in the levels of potassium and total protein between diabetic smokers, nondiabetic smokers, and controls. Difference in the levels of sodium is only significant with nondiabetic smokers and controls. Conclusion: Diabetes mellitus is known to alter the composition of saliva. The purpose of this study was to estimate and compare the levels of salivary potassium, sodium, and total protein in smoker diabetic patients and nondiabetic smokers and controls, and to explore potential of salivary electrolytes [Na+, K+] and total proteins as markers. The estimated values of salivary constituents add to the data already recorded in Indian population. However, further studies using large samples are required to evaluate the findings in our study.

Bastian A.M.,Royal Dental College | Yogesh T.L.,Mahe Institute of Dental science | Kumaraswamy K.L.,Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Dental science | Kumaraswamy K.L.,Farooquia Dental College
Indian Journal of Cancer | Year: 2013

Apoptosis is a process of programmed cell death occurring in multicellular organisms in whom development, maintenance and sculpturing organs and tissues. Taken together, apoptotic processes are of widespread biological significance; being involved in e.g. development, differentiation, proliferation/homoeostasis, regulation and function of the immune system and in the removal of defected harmful cells. Dys regulation of apoptosis can play a primary or secondary role leading to cancer whereas excessive apoptosis contributes to neuro degeneration, autoimmunity, AIDS, and ischemia. Gaining insight into the techniques for detecting apoptotic cells will allow the development of more effective, higher specific and therefore better-tolerable therapeutic approaches. The goal of this review article is to provide a general overview of current knowledge, on the various technical approaches for detecting apoptotic cells.

Singh D.,University of Lucknow | Bastian T.S.,Mahe Institute of Dental science | Singh A.,Sardar Patel Postgraduate Institute of Dental and Medical science | Kudva S.,Jaipur Dental College
Medico-Legal Update | Year: 2014

Background: Artifact is an artificial structure or tissue alteration on a prepared microscopic slide, as a result of an extraneous factor. It makes diagnosis difficult. Punch & Incisional biopsy commonly used for diagnosis of oral lesions often present with artefacts. Aims & Objective: To study the artefacts arising in specimens during incisional & punch biopsy and to compare their occurrence in punch & incisional biopsy cases. Methodology: The study was carried out at Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology between March 2007 to May 2008. Study design was cross sectional & study unit comprised of subjects with oral lesions, having indications for incisional & punch biopsy. Incisional biopsy and punch biopsy specimens were taken from 25 cases each having oral lesions needing biopsy for diagnosis after informed consent. Specimens were compared for artefacts like curling, crush, haemorrhage, splits & fragmentation, stretch, pseudo cyst etc. Chi-square test was used to determine any significant difference between the two biopsy techniques. Results: Artefacts were more frequent in Incisional biopsy group compared to punch biopsy group except for stretch artefact which was significantly higher in punch biopsy group. No statistically significant difference in proportion of artefacts was observed for artifact induced by improper surgical removal, by surgical suction instruments, curling, crush and injection artifacts. A statistically significant difference was found between Incisional & punch biopsy cases for haemorrhage and split & fragmentation artifact, both of which were lesser in punch biopsy group. Conclusions: Punch biopsy technique produces much less artefacts in biopsy specimens compared to Incisional biopsy. It is rapid, safe and can reduce potential diagnostic problems and misdiagnosis.

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