Mahatma Phule Agricultural University
Rahuri, India

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Ratnavathi C.V.,ICAR Indian Institute of Millets Research | Chavan U.D.,Mahatma Phule Agricultural University
Sorghum Biochemistry: An Industrial Perspective | Year: 2016

Sorghum is traditionally used for alcoholic and nonalcoholic fermented beverages in African countries. The potential of sorghum for its malt and beer was studied. Alpha amylase and diastatic activity of different cultivars were studied. Sorghum showed highest amylase activities at 96. h germination. Lager beer is produced from 100% sorghum using exogenous enzymes. The lager beer from sorghum malt and adjunct showed superiority in composition, such as increased free alpha amino nitrogen and color units in sorghum malt and adjunct beer. A good adjunct should have low saccharification time and should have the highest percent extraction of grain. The highest amount of alcohol and free alpha amino nitrogen were recovered with adjuncts of CSH 18 and CSH 16 with SPV 824 malt. Sensory analysis indicated that no significant differences existed between the sorghum beer and a commercial malted barley beer with regard to aroma, mouth-feel, after-taste, and clarity. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Kulwal P.,Mahatma Phule Agricultural University | Ishikawa G.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Benscher D.,Cornell University | Feng Z.,Cornell University | And 5 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2012

Association mapping identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and the markers linked to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) resistance in an elite association mapping panel of white winter wheat comprising 198 genotypes. A total of 1,166 marker loci including DArT and SSR markers representing all 21 chromosomes of wheat were used in the analysis. General and mixed linear models were used to analyze PHS data collected over 4 years. Association analysis identified eight QTLs linked with 13 markers mapped on seven chromosomes. A QTL was detected on each arm of chromosome 2B and one each on chromosome arms 1BS, 2DS, 4AL, 6DL, 7BS and 7DS. All except the QTL on 7BS are located in a location similar to previous reports and, if verified, the QTL on 7BS is likely to be novel. Principal components and the kinship matrix were used to account for the presence of population structure but had only a minor effect on the results. Although, none of the QTLs was highly significant across all environments, a QTL on the long arm of chromosome 4A was detected in three different environments and also using the best linear unbiased predictions over years. Although previous reports have identified this as a major QTL, its effects were minor in our biparental mapping populations. The results of this study highlight the benefits of association mapping and the value of using elite material in association mapping for plant breeding programs. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Gupta P.K.,Ch Charan Singh University | Kulwal P.L.,Mahatma Phule Agricultural University | Jaiswal V.,Ch Charan Singh University
Advances in Genetics | Year: 2014

The research area of association mapping (AM) is currently receiving major attention for genetic studies of quantitative traits in all major crops. However, the level of success and utility of AM achieved for crop improvement is not comparable to that in the area of human health care for diagnosis of complex human diseases. These AM studies in plants, as in humans, became possible due to the availability of DNA-based molecular markers and a variety of sophisticated statistical tools that are evolving on a regular basis. In this chapter, we first briefly review the significance of a variety of populations that are used in AM studies, then briefly describe the molecular markers and high-throughput genotyping strategies, and finally describe the approaches used for AM studies. The major part of the chapter is, however, devoted to analysis of reasons why the results of AM have been underutilized in plant breeding. We also examine the opportunities available and challenges faced while using AM for crop improvement programs. This includes a detailed discussion of the issues that have plagued AM studies, and the solutions that have become available to deal with these issues, so that in future, the results of AM studies may prove increasingly fruitful for crop improvement programs. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Gupta P.K.,CCS University | Balyan H.S.,CCS University | Gahlaut V.,CCS University | Kulwal P.L.,Mahatma Phule Agricultural University
Plant Breeding Reviews | Year: 2012

During the last decade, we have witnessed globally a decline in annual growth rate in wheat production associated with an unprecedented increase in the price of food grain, making wheat grain availability difficult for the poor. Thishas been attributed partly to the difficulties in further improvement in genetic potential for wheat productivity through the use of current conventional methods ofwheat breeding, and partly to the impact of a variety of abiotic stresses (including drought and heat) due to increasingly variable climate. In this article, after a brief introduction about the problem and about the environments targeted for drought and heat tolerance, we briefly review the work being done to deal with this major problem, which the wheat breeders are facing globally. Since a variety of parameters have been used for estimating the level of drought and heat tolerance, we first discuss in detail the traits and the parameters usedto estimate drought and heat tolerance, outlining the known genetic architecture (including QTL mapping work, wherever available) of drought and heat tolerance using each of these traits. A brief description of the possibility of synergy among stress adaptive traits for providing tolerance against drought and heat stress is also given. Crop modeling and high-throughput phenotyping (using phenomics platforms) that became possible recently have also been discussed briefly. This is followed by an account of the strategies that have already been used and need to be used in future for developing wheat genotypes, which should be suitable for growing in drought and heat-prone areas. Both conventional methods of wheat breeding and molecular wheat breeding have been discussed, the latter including both marker-assisted selection (MAS) and transgenic approach. It has been shown that some significant progress has already been made using these approaches and that with the substantial growth in the area of genomics research; molecular breeding should become an important component of conventional wheat breeding research. © 2012 Wiley-Blackwell. Published 2012 by John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Aher P.D.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay | Adinarayana J.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay | Gorantiwar S.D.,Mahatma Phule Agricultural University
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2014

Planning of watershed at micro-level is indispensable for sustainable development, particularly in the fragile semi-arid tropics. Morphometric characterization is important to recognize hydrological behavior of the basin for carrying out management strategies. Previous prioritization methods suffer from cavities in which uncertainties were associated with morphometric variables of watershed ecosystem. Keeping this in view, geospatial-statistical techniques were used for identifying critical and priority sub-watersheds in water scarce region of India. A novel Weighted Sum Analysis (WSA) technique was developed for ranking of each hydrological unit concerning the weightages obtained from morphometric parameters. Considering WSA approach, sub-watersheds were alienated into very high, high, medium, low and poor priority zones. The results illustrate that 51.66% of sub-watersheds are in the moderately to highly susceptible zones, which shows potential areas for preferential conservation works planning. The WSA is viable approach and will be useful to different stakeholders such as agriculturists and natural resources managers for better decisions making. © 2014.

Chavan U.D.,Mahatma Phule Agricultural University | Amarowicz R.,Polish Academy of Sciences
International Food Research Journal | Year: 2013

Phenolic compounds and sugars were extracted from beach pea (Lathyrus maritimus L.) seeds using methanol-water, ethanol-water and acetone-water solvent system (80:20, v/v) at 80°C. The extracted solvents were used for determining the content of phenolic compounds and sugars by colorimetrically. UV spectra were measured and TLC analysis was performed on silica gel to compare phenolic compounds extracted in particular solvent systems. UV absorbance of phenolics (280 nm) and condensed tannins were measured at 500 nm after colour development. The vanillin positive acetone extracts were pooled, concentrated and subsequently subjected to HPLC analysis. Both (+)-Catechin and (-)-Epicatechin were identified in the extraction solution. Acetone-water system extracted considerably higher amounts of phenolic compounds and condensed tannins than the ethanol-water or methanol-water systems. UV spectra of pooled extracts were similar for all solvent systems employed, but TLC plate analysis showed that the presence of higher molecular weight tannins which were not found when methanol-water or ethanol-water were used for extraction. © 2008 IFRJ.

Pawar D.D.,Mahatma Phule Agricultural University | Dingre S.K.,Mahatma Phule Agricultural University
Indian Journal of Horticulture | Year: 2013

Field experiments was conducted on clay loam soil in western Maharashtra for three consecutive years (2007-2010) to study the response of drip-fertigation on growth, yield, quality and economics of banana cv. Grand Naine. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with nine treatments replicated three times. The experiment comprised of 100, 80 and 60 per cent water soluble fertilizers applied through drip in two schedules and results were compared with three control treatments. The study indicated the beneficial effects of drip irrigation in terms of 23 per cent increase in yield and 45.3 per cent water saving whereas drip with fertigation resulted into 24 to 46% increase in banana yield with equal amount of water saving as compared to conventional method. The results revealed that drip fertigation significantly increased growth, yield contributing and quality characters as compared to conventional fertilizers. Fertigation as per the growth stages proved superior as compared to uniform splits for all the characters including yield. The 100 per cent recommended dose of fertilizer through drip as per crop growth stages showed 46.22 per cent increase in yield (83.62 t/ha). However, it was on par with 80% fertigation treatments (79 t/ha). The banana fruit yield obtained under 60% fertigation (68 t/ha) produced 19% more yield as compared to conventional fertilizer application through soil (57.4 t/ha) indicating 40% fertilizer saving due to fertigation. Maximum water use efficiency (69.5 kg/ha-mm) was obtained in treatment where 100% water soluble fertilizers were applied through drip as per crop growth stages.

Borse N.,Mahatma Phule Agricultural University | Chimote V.P.,Mahatma Phule Agricultural University | Jadhav A.S.,Mahatma Phule Agricultural University
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2011

The present work was undertaken to investigate clonal fidelity of banana (Musa acuminata cv. Grand Naine) regenerants from six different in vitro subculture generations and in the explant suckers by using ISSR and REMAP molecular markers. Both types of markers revealed high degree of monomorphism. Very low variation was observed up to the eighth subculture generation with polymorphic bands being low in both ISSR (0.96%) and REMAP (0.95%) markers. Epigenetic stability was studied by DNA methylation analysis of the eighth subculture generation samples. Single 570. bp methylation sensitive band was absent in two of the fifteen MspI predigested samples, while it was present in HpaII predigested and undigested samples. The results of the investigation confirmed that the micropropagation of banana up to the eighth subculture generation show low variation. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Chavan U.D.,Mahatma Phule Agricultural University | Prabhukhanolkar A.E.,Mahatma Phule Agricultural University | Pawar V.D.,Mahatma Phule Agricultural University
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Process for preparation of ripe banana slices using osmotic dehydration was standardized. Fully ripe banana fruits were peeled and slices of 8 mm thickness were prepared. The slices were divided into 5 lots and pretreated with sulphur fumigation @ 2 g/kg of slices for 2 h then each lot was soaked in 60 °Brix sugar syrup containing 0.1% KMS + 0.1 % citrate, 0.1% KMS + 0.1% citrate + 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% ascorbic acid and control respectively. After 16 h soaking, quick washing, blotting and then cabinet drying at 55 °C for 10 h up to 18% moisture content was done. The dried products were packed in 200 gauge polypropylene bags and stored at ambient condition for 6 months. The chemical, microbial and organoleptic changes were monitored for 6 months. The osmo-dried banana slices prepared with sulphur fumigation @ 2 g/kg slices for 2 h followed by soaking in 60°Brix sugar syrup containing 0.1% KMS + 0.1% citrate + 0.2% ascorbic acid were found better with respect to colour and appearance, flavour, texture, taste and overall acceptability with non-stickiness of the product. Storage study showed that there was marginal decrease in moisture content and organoleptic quality and increase in TSS, total sugars and reducing sugars content of osmodried banana slices. The products were found microbiologically safe and sensorily acceptable up to 6 months storage at ambient condition. © Association of Food Scientists and Technologists (India), Mysore.

Kulwal P.L.,Mahatma Phule Agricultural University | Mhase L.B.,Mahatma Phule Agricultural University
Plant Genetic Resources: Characterisation and Utilisation | Year: 2016

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important food legume crop grown mostly in Asia and Africa as well as in other parts of the world, and serves as an important source of protein in the diets of vegetarian people. Lot of variation in grain quality traits has been observed in cultivated chickpea in both desi and Kabuli types. It has often been observed that seeds with smaller size have more protein when compared with those with larger size. The joint dependence of these two traits on the same primary characteristics results in this negative relationship. This negative correlation coupled with breeding efforts aimed at increasing grain yield has hampered the progress of improving these two traits simultaneously. Therefore, a germplasm exhibiting wider variability for these quantitative traits is an important resource for the identification of novel alleles. Herein, we report the wide variation observed for five important quantitative traits including days to flowering, days to maturity, plant height, 100-seed weight and protein content, and also report the significant positive correlation observed between 100-seed weight and protein content in a diverse collection of chickpea germplasm comprising both desi and Kabuli types. Copyright © NIAB 2016

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