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Aher P.D.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay | Adinarayana J.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay | Gorantiwar S.D.,Mahatma Phule Agricultural University
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2014

Planning of watershed at micro-level is indispensable for sustainable development, particularly in the fragile semi-arid tropics. Morphometric characterization is important to recognize hydrological behavior of the basin for carrying out management strategies. Previous prioritization methods suffer from cavities in which uncertainties were associated with morphometric variables of watershed ecosystem. Keeping this in view, geospatial-statistical techniques were used for identifying critical and priority sub-watersheds in water scarce region of India. A novel Weighted Sum Analysis (WSA) technique was developed for ranking of each hydrological unit concerning the weightages obtained from morphometric parameters. Considering WSA approach, sub-watersheds were alienated into very high, high, medium, low and poor priority zones. The results illustrate that 51.66% of sub-watersheds are in the moderately to highly susceptible zones, which shows potential areas for preferential conservation works planning. The WSA is viable approach and will be useful to different stakeholders such as agriculturists and natural resources managers for better decisions making. © 2014. Source

Gupta P.K.,University | Balyan H.S.,University | Gahlaut V.,University | Kulwal P.L.,Mahatma Phule Agricultural University
Plant Breeding Reviews | Year: 2012

During the last decade, we have witnessed globally a decline in annual growth rate in wheat production associated with an unprecedented increase in the price of food grain, making wheat grain availability difficult for the poor. Thishas been attributed partly to the difficulties in further improvement in genetic potential for wheat productivity through the use of current conventional methods ofwheat breeding, and partly to the impact of a variety of abiotic stresses (including drought and heat) due to increasingly variable climate. In this article, after a brief introduction about the problem and about the environments targeted for drought and heat tolerance, we briefly review the work being done to deal with this major problem, which the wheat breeders are facing globally. Since a variety of parameters have been used for estimating the level of drought and heat tolerance, we first discuss in detail the traits and the parameters usedto estimate drought and heat tolerance, outlining the known genetic architecture (including QTL mapping work, wherever available) of drought and heat tolerance using each of these traits. A brief description of the possibility of synergy among stress adaptive traits for providing tolerance against drought and heat stress is also given. Crop modeling and high-throughput phenotyping (using phenomics platforms) that became possible recently have also been discussed briefly. This is followed by an account of the strategies that have already been used and need to be used in future for developing wheat genotypes, which should be suitable for growing in drought and heat-prone areas. Both conventional methods of wheat breeding and molecular wheat breeding have been discussed, the latter including both marker-assisted selection (MAS) and transgenic approach. It has been shown that some significant progress has already been made using these approaches and that with the substantial growth in the area of genomics research; molecular breeding should become an important component of conventional wheat breeding research. © 2012 Wiley-Blackwell. Published 2012 by John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Source

Chavan U.D.,Mahatma Phule Agricultural University | Amarowicz R.,Polish Academy of Sciences
International Food Research Journal | Year: 2013

Phenolic compounds and sugars were extracted from beach pea (Lathyrus maritimus L.) seeds using methanol-water, ethanol-water and acetone-water solvent system (80:20, v/v) at 80°C. The extracted solvents were used for determining the content of phenolic compounds and sugars by colorimetrically. UV spectra were measured and TLC analysis was performed on silica gel to compare phenolic compounds extracted in particular solvent systems. UV absorbance of phenolics (280 nm) and condensed tannins were measured at 500 nm after colour development. The vanillin positive acetone extracts were pooled, concentrated and subsequently subjected to HPLC analysis. Both (+)-Catechin and (-)-Epicatechin were identified in the extraction solution. Acetone-water system extracted considerably higher amounts of phenolic compounds and condensed tannins than the ethanol-water or methanol-water systems. UV spectra of pooled extracts were similar for all solvent systems employed, but TLC plate analysis showed that the presence of higher molecular weight tannins which were not found when methanol-water or ethanol-water were used for extraction. © 2008 IFRJ. Source

Gupta P.K.,Ch Charan Singh University | Kulwal P.L.,Mahatma Phule Agricultural University | Jaiswal V.,Ch Charan Singh University
Advances in Genetics | Year: 2014

The research area of association mapping (AM) is currently receiving major attention for genetic studies of quantitative traits in all major crops. However, the level of success and utility of AM achieved for crop improvement is not comparable to that in the area of human health care for diagnosis of complex human diseases. These AM studies in plants, as in humans, became possible due to the availability of DNA-based molecular markers and a variety of sophisticated statistical tools that are evolving on a regular basis. In this chapter, we first briefly review the significance of a variety of populations that are used in AM studies, then briefly describe the molecular markers and high-throughput genotyping strategies, and finally describe the approaches used for AM studies. The major part of the chapter is, however, devoted to analysis of reasons why the results of AM have been underutilized in plant breeding. We also examine the opportunities available and challenges faced while using AM for crop improvement programs. This includes a detailed discussion of the issues that have plagued AM studies, and the solutions that have become available to deal with these issues, so that in future, the results of AM studies may prove increasingly fruitful for crop improvement programs. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Pawar D.D.,Mahatma Phule Agricultural University | Dingre S.K.,Mahatma Phule Agricultural University
Indian Journal of Horticulture | Year: 2013

Field experiments was conducted on clay loam soil in western Maharashtra for three consecutive years (2007-2010) to study the response of drip-fertigation on growth, yield, quality and economics of banana cv. Grand Naine. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with nine treatments replicated three times. The experiment comprised of 100, 80 and 60 per cent water soluble fertilizers applied through drip in two schedules and results were compared with three control treatments. The study indicated the beneficial effects of drip irrigation in terms of 23 per cent increase in yield and 45.3 per cent water saving whereas drip with fertigation resulted into 24 to 46% increase in banana yield with equal amount of water saving as compared to conventional method. The results revealed that drip fertigation significantly increased growth, yield contributing and quality characters as compared to conventional fertilizers. Fertigation as per the growth stages proved superior as compared to uniform splits for all the characters including yield. The 100 per cent recommended dose of fertilizer through drip as per crop growth stages showed 46.22 per cent increase in yield (83.62 t/ha). However, it was on par with 80% fertigation treatments (79 t/ha). The banana fruit yield obtained under 60% fertigation (68 t/ha) produced 19% more yield as compared to conventional fertilizer application through soil (57.4 t/ha) indicating 40% fertilizer saving due to fertigation. Maximum water use efficiency (69.5 kg/ha-mm) was obtained in treatment where 100% water soluble fertilizers were applied through drip as per crop growth stages. Source

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